Vietnam Geography and Climate

Vietnam is a country with a diverse landscape, 3000 km of coastline of the rich South China Sea and a huge number of valuable historical and cultural monuments, many of which are listed as world cultural and historical heritage. There are mountains covered with primeval forests, and river valleys, and waterfalls, and lakes, and luxurious beaches with white sand and clear sea water.

Northern Vietnam stretches from the mountains on the border with China to Bacbo Bay. Perhaps the most attention in this region attracts Halong Bay. About 1600 picturesque islands are located on its area, some of which have caves. Other natural attractions include Cat Ba National Park and Vietnam’s highest mountain, Fansipan. The main historical sites here are the cities of Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, and the former capital of the tenth century, Hoaly.

Central Vietnam stretches in a narrow strip along the South China Sea. The cities of Hue, Hoi An and the My Son Cham temple complex near Da Nang located here are recognized by UNESCO as world cultural heritage sites. On the coast are the magnificent resorts of Da Nang, Nha Trang and Phan Thiet.

The Mekong River flows through South Vietnam, the lands in the basin of which represent the country’s largest granary. Most of the territory is occupied by rice fields, vegetable gardens and orchards. The main tourist destinations are Ho Chi Minh City, a paradise for shopping and entertainment; hidden manholes, where once lived the Vietnamese soldiers who fought with the Americans and the Mekong Delta. Recently, tourism in the country is experiencing a real boom – hotels are being built everywhere and resort areas are being created, new roads are being built and old roads are being modernized, infrastructure is being developed.

The elongation of Vietnam from north to south and the diverse relief determine the difference in the climatic conditions of its regions. For this reason, there are no good and bad seasons to visit the country. When one region is too damp, cold or swelteringly hot, there is always a place where it is sunny and dry.

In most parts of Vietnam, the dry season runs from November to April, with the rainiest months being July and August. According to the nature of moisture in the central part of the country, a special area of ​​coastal lowlands stands out. They are protected from the southwest monsoon by the Truong Son Mountains, so the maximum precipitation falls not in the summer months, as in other areas, but in the autumn. On the island of Phu Quoc, the rainy season lasts only a month – in October. In the north, in addition to rain, temperature is also a determining factor when planning a trip. In winter, it is quite cool here, and frosts can be in the mountains. It should be borne in mind that typhoons are not uncommon in the northern regions in the second half of summer and autumn. In the summer months temperatures reach +30…33 oC. From March to October, the water temperature in the South China Sea exceeds 25 o C, and on Phu Quoc Island it does not fall below +26 o C all year round.

The official language of Vietnam is Vietnamese. There are many dialects of the Vietnamese language throughout the country, as well as other languages spoken by various ethnic minorities, such as Khmer and Loatians. The most common foreign languages in Vietnam are Chinese, English, French and Russian.

Geography in Vietnam

According to top-engineering-schools, Vietnam is located in Southeast Asia on the Indochina Peninsula. In addition to the mainland, Vietnam includes the islands of Con Dao, Phu Quoc and others. Its neighbors in the west are Laos and Cambodia, in the north – China, in the south. In the north, the country is washed by the South China Sea and part of it – Bakbo Bay, in the southwest – by the Gulf of Thailand.

The area of Vietnam is 331.7 thousand km 2. Most of the territory is mountainous. In the north is the Yunnan Highlands, where the highest point of the country is located – Mount Fansipan (3143 m). In the central part of the country there are the Truong Son Mountains, which have steep eastern slopes and western slopes descending in steps to the Mekong River Valley. The highest point of this massif – Mount Sailayleng (2711 m) – is located in the northwest, on the border with Laos. In the east and the very south of the country are the main low-lying regions – the deltas of the Hongha (Red) and Mekong rivers. The river network of Vietnam is dense. Hongha and Mekong are its largest rivers. During the period of monsoon rains, significant rises in their level (up to 10 m) are not uncommon. The largest lakes are Pelam, Pelu and Peleng.

There are a large number of national parks and reserves on the territory of the country – these are the national parks of Batma Hai Van, Kuk Phuong (Vavi), the reserves on the Tainguen plateau and at the foot of the Truong Son mountain ranges, the National Park of Cat Ba Island, Ha Long Bay, the Chyk Nature Reserve with the Primate Rescue Center, the National Bach Ma Park, Yok Don and others.

Climate in Vietnam

Vietnam belongs to the monsoon subequatorial climate zone. In summer, the summer humid monsoon of the south and southwest directions dominates here, in winter – the dry northeast monsoon.

There are three regions in the country – the northern one with dry and mild winters and humid hot summers, the central one with high temperatures and humidity throughout the year, and the southern one, the climate of which is similar to the climate of the northern regions, but with higher temperatures.

In northern Vietnam, the dry season lasts from November to April, with the least amount of precipitation falling in December-January (about 10 mm). The maximum amount of precipitation occurs in July-August and varies depending on the place from 270 to 450 mm per month, and in the period from July to September, 80% of the annual precipitation falls, which is 1400-1700 mm. In mountainous areas, the amount of precipitation per year reaches 3000 mm. The coldest month is January with an average daytime temperature of +18 o C and +9 o C at night. In the mountains at altitudes of more than 1500 m in winter at night there are frosts, and snow is not ruled out. In the summer months, during the day, the thermometer rises to +30-32 degrees, at night it drops to +23. In the second half of summer and autumn, typhoons are not uncommon in the northern regions.

In central Vietnam in winter, daytime temperatures range from +21 to +24 degrees, nighttime temperatures from +15 to +18. The coldest month is January. During the summer, the air temperature remains almost unchanged – +34 o C during the day and +25 o C at night. By the nature of moisture in this region, a special area of ​​coastal lowlands stands out. They are protected from the southwest monsoon by the Truong Son Mountains, so the maximum precipitation falls not in the summer months, as in other areas, but in the autumn. The wettest months are September and October, when 400-500 mm of precipitation falls. The rainy season lasts until January. The least amount of precipitation occurs in February-March (about 40 mm).

In the south, the rainiest months are also July and August, but more precipitation falls – from 400 to 700 mm. Rains most often occur during the day in the form of short showers. In January, the coldest month, the characteristic temperatures at night and during the day are +21 and +30 degrees, respectively. The warmest month is April with an average night temperature of +23 o C and a daytime temperature of +33 o C.

On the island of Phu Quoc, the rainy season lasts only a month – in October, the rest of the time is the dry season.

Best time to visit

The elongation of Vietnam from north to south and the diverse relief determine the difference in the climatic conditions of its regions. For this reason, there are no good and bad seasons to visit the country. When one region is too damp, cold or swelteringly hot, there is always a place where it is sunny and dry.

In most parts of Vietnam, the dry season runs from November to April, with the rainiest months being July and August. According to the nature of moisture in the central part of the country, a special area of ​​coastal lowlands stands out. They are protected from the southwest monsoon by the Truong Son Mountains, so the maximum precipitation falls not in the summer months, as in other areas, but in the autumn. On the island of Phu Quoc, the rainy season lasts only a month – in October. In the north, in addition to rain, temperature is also a determining factor when planning a trip. In winter, it is quite cool here, and frosts can be in the mountains. It should be borne in mind that typhoons are not uncommon in the northern regions in the second half of summer and autumn. In the summer months temperatures reach +30…33 oC. From March to October, the water temperature in the South China Sea exceeds 25 ° C, and on Phu Quoc Island it does not fall below +26 ° C all year round.

Vietnam Geography

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