Uzbekistan Geography and Climate

Uzbekistan is one of the most ancient regions of Central Asia, the main asset of which is a rich historical past. Already about 2000 years ago there were such world-famous cities as Bukhara, Samarkand and Khiva. In addition to archaeological and historical monuments, Uzbekistan has a rich and diverse natural world: the Kyzylkum desert, occupied by sands and dunes, the spurs of the Tien Shan and Pamir-Alay mountains, densely overgrown with juniper forests, as well as the valleys of the largest rivers in this part of Asia – the Syrdarya and Amudarya. In Uzbekistan, you can engage in a wide variety of types of tourism: hiking, ecotourism, skiing, freeride, rafting, fishing and safari.

The most favorable time for traveling around Uzbekistan is spring (April-May) and autumn (September-November), as it is too hot in summer, especially in July, and in winter it is cool and there is a lot of precipitation. The best time to visit the mountainous regions is from March to November, because the air in the mountains does not warm up as much as in the plains. The ski season lasts from November to April.

Since 1989, Uzbek has been the official language of Uzbekistan. Tajik and Russian languages are also widely spoken in the country. Many tourism workers speak English.

Geography in Uzbekistan

According to top-engineering-schools, Uzbekistan is located in Central Asia. The total area of the country is 447.4 thousand square meters. km. In the south, Uzbekistan borders on Afghanistan and Turkmenistan, in the east – on Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, in the north and west – on Kazakhstan. The country has no access to the sea. Uzbekistan owns 2 enclaves in the Fergana Valley in the southwestern part of Kyrgyzstan, and one Kyrgyz and one Tajik enclave is also located in the Fergana Valley on the territory of Uzbekistan.

The relief of the country is mostly flat. Plains of Uzbekistan arid. The vast Turan lowland and the Ustyurt plateau extend in the northwestern part of the country. The Turan lowland is occupied by the Kyzylkum desert. In the southeastern part of the country, the spurs of the Tien Shan mountains (ridges of Ugamsky, Pskemsky, Chatkalsky, Kuraminsky) and Pamir-Alay (ridges of Zeravshan, Turkestan, Gissar, Kugitangtau and Baysuntau) stretch. In the southern part of the Gissar Range, near the border with Tajikistan, there is the highest point of the country – the peak of Adelunga-Togi (4643 m). Earthquakes often occur in the mountainous regions of Uzbekistan. In the extreme east of the country, between the mountain ranges, there is a large intermountain depression – the Ferghana Valley – 370 km long and 190 km wide. The Ferghana Valley is the most fertile and most populated region of Central Asia.

In the northwestern part of Uzbekistan, on the border with Kazakhstan, there is the infamous Aral Sea-Lake. Until 1960, it was the fourth largest lake in the world, its area was about 68 thousand square meters. km. In subsequent years, as a result of the intensive use of the waters of the rivers flowing into it for irrigation, the lake began to shallow. Nowadays, the lake has split into two reservoirs: the Small and Big Aral, the total area of which does not exceed 20 thousand square meters. km. The drying process has become irreversible, but scientists are still trying to solve this problem. The main rivers that feed the Aral are the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya. The Amu Darya flows through the country along the border with Afghanistan and Turkmenistan, then through the western part of the state and flows into the Aral Sea on its territory. On the eastern outskirts Uzbekistan passes through part of the middle reaches of the Syr Darya River, but it flows into the Aral Sea on the territory of Kazakhstan. Other major rivers of the country are the tributaries of the Amudarya and Syrdarya: Zeravshan, Chirchik, Kashkadarya and Surkhandarya. Many rivers in Uzbekistan dry up in the summer due to the arid climate and intensive use of their waters for irrigation. In the north-eastern part of the country, in the Kyzylkum desert, there is the Aidar-Arnasay system of reservoirs, which consists of three lakes with brackish water: Aydarkul, Arnasay and Tuzkan. Aydarkul is the second largest lake in the state. It is worth noting that in the valley of the Amudarya River and on its tributaries, many reservoirs are equipped, and small lakes are also located in mountainous areas.

Climate in Uzbekistan

A temperate continental climate type prevails in Uzbekistan, the southeastern part of the country (regions bordering Afghanistan and Turkmenistan) are the area of subtropical continental climate type.

The hottest month is July and the coldest month is January. On the plains in the summer in the daytime, the air warms up to +35..+37 degrees, and at night it cools down to +20..+22 degrees, in the winter months it is about 0 degrees during the day, and -8..-10 degrees at night. In the desert regions of the northern part of the country, in summer the daytime heat can reach +37..+39 degrees, at night the air cools down to +21..+23 degrees, in winter during the daytime it is +1..+3 degrees, and at night – 5..7 degrees below zero. In the mountainous regions of Uzbekistan at an altitude of about 600 m in the summer, during the day the air warms up to +34..+36 degrees, at night it cools down to +18..+20 degrees. In winter, daytime temperatures reach 5 degrees Celsius, and at night – 5 degrees below zero. In higher mountain regions, winter frosts can reach -20 degrees. In the south of the country

Most of the country’s territory receives less than 200 mm of precipitation per year, up to 90 mm of precipitation falls in the desert northern regions of Uzbekistan, and up to 1000 mm in the mountains. Most of them fall on the period from November to April, and during this period of the year the monthly rainfall does not exceed 60 mm. During the dry summer months, no more than 10 mm of precipitation falls monthly throughout Uzbekistan.

Best time to visit

The most favorable time for traveling around Uzbekistan is spring (April-May) and autumn (September-November), as it is too hot in summer, especially in July, and in winter it is cool and there is a lot of precipitation. The best time to visit the mountainous regions is from March to November, because the air in the mountains does not warm up as much as in the plains. The ski season lasts from November to April.

Uzbekistan Geography