Great Britain, which embodies both centuries of history and modern civilization, combines ancient traditions and unique architectural monuments with cutting-edge business centers and trendy cafes.
The historical regions of Great Britain – England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland – are actually four different countries with their own characteristics.
England has the largest number of cultural heritage sites. Here is London – a city rich in architectural monuments, theaters, nightlife, shops, restaurants, museums and art galleries. Windsor, Oxford, Cambridge, York, Bath, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool – not a complete list of cities to visit in England. Another highlight of this area is Stonehenge, Britain’s most mysterious monument.
Scotland is mountains, lakes, moorlands, bagpipe sounds, traditional whiskey. Here you can see corners of wild nature. Scotland is a paradise for bird watchers; Numerous seabird reserves have been established on the islands.
Wales pleases tourists with a variety of landscapes, wonderful castles and hospitality. About a fifth of it has the status of a national park.
Northern Ireland is not rich in cultural attractions, but here you can look at a unique natural monument – the Path of the Giants, listed by the World Historical Heritage Fund.
The best time to visit the UK is from April to September, when it is warm, there is not much rain and most of the sights open. In July and August, the peak of attendance comes – about 1.5 million tourists come to the country, so it is better not to plan a trip for these months.
The official and spoken language of most of the UK population is English. Some of the Irish, Welsh and Gaels also use their own languages, belonging to the Celtic group.
Geography in United Kingdom
Great Britain is an island nation in the northwest of Europe. It occupies the island of Great Britain, part of the island of Ireland and a number of smaller islands (Man, Wight, Channel Islands, Orkney, Hebrides, Shetland and others). Great Britain consists of 4 historical and geographical regions: England, Scotland and Wales, located on the island of Great Britain, and Northern Ireland. The total area of the country is 244.9 thousand square meters. km. Great Britain has a land border with a single country – Ireland. In the north and west, the country is washed by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, and in the east and south – by the North Sea and the narrow straits of the English Channel and Pas de Calais. The entire coast is dotted with bays, bays, deltas and peninsulas, so most of the UK is located at a distance of no more than 120 km from the sea.
Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and Northern England are dominated by medium-altitude mountains and uplands with deeply incised river valleys. The highest point in the country is located in Scotland – this is Mount Ben Nevis with a height of 1343 m. South-eastern and central parts of Great Britain occupied by elevated plains and wastelands. In these areas, only a few places reach 300 m above sea level.
Great Britain has a dense network of rivers. In England and Wales, the main rivers are Tyne, Trent, Humber, Severn and Thames, in Scotland – Clyde, Fort and Tweed, in Northern Ireland – Bann and Logan. All of them are short, full-flowing and non-freezing in winter. There are many lakes in the mountains, mostly of glacial origin. The largest of them are Loch Neagh, Loch Lomond and Loch Ness. UK
Nature ConservancyIt is carried out by a system of national parks, national natural and forest reserves and reserves for the protection of waterfowl, occupying about 7% of the country’s territory. The originality of British national parks is that these are not “deaf” areas, but rather close to large cities, more like huge city parks or botanical gardens. The largest national parks are the Lake District or Lake District and Snowdonia, the Dartmoor and Brecon Beacons reserves.
Climate in United Kingdom
The decisive influence on the climate of Great Britain is exerted by the warm Gulf Stream, which passes along its western shores and heats the air along the way. Due to this, the climate on the islands is milder than it could be, given their northern position.
Great Britain belongs to the temperate continental climate of the maritime type, which is characterized by warm winters and cool summers. The temperature here rarely rises to +30 and falls below -10, and most of the year it fluctuates between +10 and +20. Due to the characteristics of the country’s topography, most of Scotland, as well as the hilly areas of Wales and England, are cooler in summer and colder in winter compared to the rest of England. The average temperature of the coldest month – January – varies from north to south from +2.7 to +5.9 degrees, and the warmest month – July – from +13.4 to +16.0. In the northeast, in some years, the temperature in winter can drop below -18 degrees.
The main features of the weather in the UK is the instability and abundance of precipitation caused by the frequent passage of cyclones. Rain and sun can replace each other in a matter of minutes, especially in autumn.
Precipitation is distributed evenly throughout the year with a slight maximum in the autumn-winter period. Their greatest number is observed in the west of the country, where about 1600 mm falls annually, and in some places – up to 3000 mm. The highlands protect the lowlands in the south and east of the country, so the annual rainfall here is much less (about 800 mm, in some areas 635 mm), with an increase in intensity in summer. The driest time is from March to June, but everywhere the average rainfall for any month exceeds 30 mm.
Great Britain is known for its clouds and fogs. Here, more than half of all days of the year are cloudy. The number of hours per day during which the Sun shines varies from five in northern Scotland to eight on the south coast of England in summer, and from one hour at the northernmost point to two at the southernmost point in winter.
Best time to visit
The best time to visit the UK is between April and September, when it’s warm, there’s not much rain and most of the attractions are open. In July and August, the peak of attendance comes – about 1.5 million tourists come to the country, so it is better not to plan a trip for these months.