Tanzania Geography and Climate

Tanzania is a land of wild nature, picturesque savannahs, majestic mountains and numerous lakes. Here is the highest point of the African continent – Mount Kilimanjaro, the largest lake in Africa – Victoria, as well as the deepest lake of the mainland – Tanganyika.

There are many protected areas on the territory of the country where tourists can watch wild animals in their natural habitat. Oddly enough, but Tanzania, in addition to its protected areas, is famous for its places where you can hunt large animals.

From the east, Tanzania is washed by the Indian Ocean, and not far from the coast are the tropical islands of Zanzibar, Mafia and Pemba with numerous sandy beaches. The coastal waters of the islands with their surrounding coral reefs are considered one of the best places in the world for diving.

The most favorable time for traveling in the Serengeti National Park is from May to July and from January to March, when seasonal animal migrations occur, in other national parks – from July to September during the dry season, when animals gather near water bodies. It is best to relax on the beaches of Tanzania from June to October, when the probability of rain is the least. The best time for diving is from October to March.

There are two official languages in the country – Swahili and English. There are also about 100 local dialects.

Geography in Tanzania

According to top-engineering-schools, Tanzania is located in the southeast of the African continent, it also owns the islands in the Indian Ocean – Zanzibar, Pemba and Mafia. The total area of the country is 945.1 thousand square meters. km, of which 881 thousand square meters. km falls on the mainland. The mainland of the country in the north borders on Uganda, in the northeast – on Kenya, in the south – on Mozambique, in the west – on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in the southwest – on Malawi and Zambia, in the northwest – on Burundi and Rwanda, in the east it is washed by the Indian Ocean.

Much of Tanzania occupied by the East African Plateau, the average height of which is 1200 m. The plateau in the meridional direction is intersected by the East African Rift Zone, which is expressed in the faults of the earth’s crust located in the western and eastern parts of the country. Here is the only active volcano in Tanzania, Oldonio Lengai (2890 m), known as the “Mountain of God”, which erupted for the last time in 1983. In different parts of the country, you can see isolated volcanic mountains, small mountain ranges and ranges. In the northeast, these are the Usambara Mountains, the Meru Mountains (4567 m) and Kilimanjaro (5895 m). The extinct volcano Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and the only snow-capped peak on the entire continent. In the south, the Livingston Mountains stand out, stretching along the northeast coast of Lake Nyasa.

The northern and western borders of Tanzania pass through lakes Victoria, Tanganyika and Nyasa. Victoria is the largest lake on the African continent and the second largest freshwater lake on Earth. Its area is 68 thousand square meters. km. It is also the third largest lake in the world. Lakes Tanganyika and Nyasa are located in the western part of the country and are confined to the East African Rift Zone. The depth of Lake Tanganyika is slightly less than that of Lake Baikal – 1470 m.

The largest rivers of the country are the Pangani, Rufiji and Ruvuma.

Climate in Tanzania

Tanzania has an equatorial monsoon climate. It is warm here all year round, as the country is located near the equator. Farther from the coast in the central part of the country, the climate is drier and hotter, in addition, the air temperature and rainfall in Tanzania depend on the altitude of the area.

The hottest months in Tanzania are December, January and February. At this time, the daily air temperature on the coast and on the islands rises to 32 degrees Celsius, in the central regions it can reach +35 degrees, and in some parts of the country – 38 degrees Celsius. At night, from December to February, the air temperature drops on the coast and on the islands to +24 degrees, in the central regions – up to +26 degrees, and in mountainous areas – up to 10 degrees Celsius. The coolest month in Tanzania is July. In July, the daily temperature in the coastal regions of the country and on the islands reaches +28 degrees, in the central part of the country – 30 degrees, and in the mountainous regions – 27 degrees. At night, at this time, the air temperature drops to +20 degrees, +22 degrees and +8 degrees, respectively.

The average annual rainfall within the East African Plateau ranges from 650 to 900 mm per year. The central part of the country is more arid, with less than 500 mm of precipitation per year. On the territory adjacent to the lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, more precipitation falls than in the rest of the plateau, their annual amount varies from 1000 to 1500 mm. In the mountains of the north-west of the country and on the island of Zanzibar, the most precipitation falls – up to 2000 mm per year, and on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro up to 1300 mm.

In the northern part of the country and on the coast, two maximum precipitations are observed – from March to May and from September to November, in the southern and central parts – one, from November to April.

Best time to visit:
The most favorable time for traveling in the Serengeti National Park is from May to July and from January to March, when seasonal animal migrations occur, in other national parks – from July to September during the dry season, when animals gather near water bodies. It is best to relax on the beaches of Tanzania from June to October, when the chance of rain is the least. The best time for diving is from October to March.

Tanzania Geography