Syria Geography and Climate

Syria is located in that part of the world, which is commonly called the “Holy Land”, because some events that are described in the Bible unfolded on the territory of the country. First of all, tourists come here to see the ruins of ancient cities, many of which are more than 4 thousand years old, Muslim and Christian shrines, Arab fortresses and castles of the Crusaders. Each city in Syria reflects the rich history of the country, the imprint of which was left by many peoples. In addition to historical attractions, the country can offer beaches of the Mediterranean coast, which are surrounded by mountains and forests, mountain resorts where you can relax not only in summer, but also in winter, and fascinating journeys through the Syrian desert with its oases and lost ancient cities.

The best time to travel around the country is in spring from March to May or in autumn from September to November, when the weather conditions are most favorable. The beach season lasts here from May to November.

The official language of Syria is Arabic. In the northern regions of the country, the Kurdish language is also widespread, and in the rest – Armenian and Turkmen languages. Of the foreign languages, English and French are the most widely used.

Geography in Syria

According to top-engineering-schools, Syria is located in the Middle East. The area of the country is 185.2 thousand square meters. km. Syria borders Lebanon and Israel in the southwest, Jordan in the south, Iraq in the east, and Turkey in the north. From the west, the country is washed by the waters of the Mediterranean Sea, the length of the coastline is about 180 km.

The southwestern part is occupied by the Anti-Lebanon mountain range with the highest point of Ash-Sheikh (Hermon) (2814 m). Inland, the plains also extend, but they are very arid. However, the driest place in Syria is the vast Syrian Desert, which extends from the southeastern borders inland. In the desert, during the rainy season, rivers appear, which are called “wadis” here. During the dry season, their channels dry up. In the northern part Syria is the oasis of Tadmor (Palmyra).

The territory of Syria can be divided into 5 natural regions: the Seaside lowland, the Western mountain range bordering it, the Rift zone, the Eastern mountain range and the East Syria plateau. The coastal lowland is a chain of sand dunes and agricultural land, sometimes there are rocks on the coast. The western mountain range stretches from the border with Turkey to the border with Lebanon and includes the mountains of Nusayriya with average heights of 1200 m. The maximum mark of the mountains is the peak of Nebi Yunes (1562 m). To the east of the An-Nusayriya mountains, another mountain range of Ez-Zawiya stretches with average heights of up to 600 m, and between them is the Al-Gab valley, where the middle course of the Orontes River passes. This is the Rift Zone, which is a continuation of the East African Rift System. The Eastern mountain range runs along the border with Lebanon – the Anti-Lebanon Range, within which is the highest point in Syria – Mount Esh-Sheikh (Hermon) with a height of 2814 m. The Anti-Lebanon Range extends eastward towards the vast plateau of Eastern Syria. The southern part of the plateau is 300 m higher than the northern one, and the western part is 450 m higher than the eastern one. Syria is crossed by numerous mountain ranges: Ed-Druz, Abd-el-Azis, Ar-Ruwak, Abu-Rujmein and Bishri. In the southern part of the plateau lies the driest region of the country – the Syrian Desert.

Large rivers such as El Asi (Orontes) and the Euphrates flow through the country. The length of the middle reaches of the Euphrates, which flows through the plateau of Eastern Syria, is 675 km. There are also two of its major tributaries – Belikh and Khabur. In the north of the country, on the Euphrates, as a result of the construction of the dam, a large El-Assad reservoir was formed (about 80 km in length and 8 km on average in width). The El Asi River (Orontes) flows in the western part of Syria along the Rift Zone. Its length within the country is 325 km. Along the northeastern border of Syria (on the border with Iraq) the Tigris River flows for about 50 km. In addition, there are large lakes in the west of the country.

Climate in Syria

Most of Syria is dominated by a subtropical Mediterranean type of climate, and in the interior – arid continental. Summers are hot and dry here, and winters are warm and relatively “rainy”, although this term should not be applied to the hinterland due to their aridity. The most favorable weather conditions are observed on the coast. In winter, during the daytime on the coast, the air warms up to +16..+18, and at night it cools down to +8..+10 degrees. During the summer, daytime temperatures rise to +28..+30 degrees, and at night they drop to +21..+23 degrees. Temperatures in the eastern regions of Syria differ by 8-10 degrees from the coastal ones. For example, in Palmyra in the summer during the daytime the air warms up to +36..+38 degrees Celsius, at night it cools down to +18..+20 degrees. In winter, during the daytime, the air temperature rises to +12..+14 degrees, and at night it drops to +2..+4 degrees. In the desert regions of Syria in the summer, daytime air temperatures can reach +46 degrees, while frosts often occur in winter. At the end of summer in Syria, the hot east wind “Khamsin” blows, sometimes developing into sandstorms.

In general, a small amount of precipitation falls in Syria: in desert regions – up to 100 mm per year, on the plateau of Eastern Syria – from 250 to 500 mm, on the western slopes of the mountains and on the Mediterranean coast – from 750 to 1000 mm. Most precipitation falls between October and March. The driest time is the period from June to September, when up to 30 mm of precipitation falls on the coast, and there is none at all in the interior of the country.

Best time to visit:
The best time to visit the country is in the spring between March and May or in the fall between September and November when the weather is at its best. The beach season lasts here from May to November.

Syria Geography