Russia has unique opportunities for any kind of tourism – from extreme to beach. Holidays in Russia have a number of advantages – there is no language barrier, no need to apply for a visa, it is relatively inexpensive, and the current level of infrastructure development in many cases can compete with foreign resorts.
The languages of all the peoples of Russia are equal, but the language of interethnic communication is Russian.
Geography in Russia
According to top-engineering-schools, Russia is located in the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its area is about 17 million square meters. km. In the west, it borders on Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Finland and Norway, in the south – on the DPRK, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia. Russia is washed by the waters of 12 seas belonging to the basins of the Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and the endorheic Caspian Sea.
Three-quarters of the country’s territory is occupied by plains. This is due to the fact that within Russia there are several large platforms. Most of the European territory is occupied by the East European Plain. The heights of most of the East European Plain do not exceed 200 m, but there are also elevations within it (Middle Russian, Smolensk-Moscow, Volga, Northern Uvaly, Timan Ridge). The Asian territory of Russia is separated from the European one by the Ural Mountains. The largest landforms in the northern part of Asia are the West Siberian Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau, the Verkhoyansk Range, and the Chersky Range. Large mountain systems stretch in the southwest and south of the country, the most significant of which are the Caucasus, Altai and Sayan Mountains. The highest point within Russia is Mount Elbrus (5642 m), located on the crest of the Main Caucasian Range.
The significant size of the territory of Russia, the complexity of its relief, the diversity of climate and soil and vegetation cover find their expression in natural zonality. Most of the country is occupied by forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones. The northern regions are part of the tundra and forest-tundra zones, and the southern regions are part of the semi-desert zone.
On the territory of Russia there are about 2.5 million rivers and 3 million lakes. 80% of the rivers belong to the basins of the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. Most of the rivers are flat, with relatively slight slopes, slow, calm flow; have wide margins. The rivers of the Caucasus, the mountains of Southern Siberia and other mountainous regions, as well as the Central Siberian Plateau, are characterized by high water content, rapid flow and rapids. The main rivers are the Ob, Lena, Irtysh, Yenisei, Volga. They are actively used for shipping. Russia is home to the world ‘s largest lake, the Caspian Sea, and the deepest freshwater lake, Baikal. The north-west of the European part of Russia is distinguished by the largest lakes., even called the lake district, where numerous lakes are concentrated, mainly of glacial origin. Significant areas in Russia are occupied by swamps. They are common on flat plains with excessive moisture – in Western Siberia, in the north of the European part of Russia, in Central Russia.
In Russia, much attention is paid to nature protection. There are 71 nature reserves and 42 national parks on its territory.
Climate in Russia
The peculiarities of the Russian climate are determined by a number of geographical factors, including the geographical position, the size and extent of the territory from west to east and from north to south, and a wide variety of terrain.
The climate throughout Russia is characterized by a distinct division of the year into cold and warm seasons. Most of the country’s territory lies in the temperate climate zone, the islands of the Arctic Ocean and the northern continental regions – in the arctic and subarctic zones; The Black Sea coast of the Caucasus is located in the subtropical zone. Within each belt, significant climate changes are observed in the direction from west to east (climatic regions) and from north to south (zonal climate types). So, for example, four subtypes of climate are distinguished in the temperate climatic zone: temperate continental, continental, sharply continental and monsoonal (in the Far East).
Cuisine in Russia
Russian national cuisine is distinctive, original and original. No country in the world has such a wide range of vegetable, meat, fish and other cold appetizers, first, second, sweet dishes, culinary products.
Soups have always played a dominant role on the Russian table. There are many types of soups – these are okroshka, botvini, cabbage soup, stews, fish soup, pickles, hodgepodges, noodle soup.
Another important dish of the Russian national table is porridge. The variety of types of Russian cereals is based primarily on the variety of varieties of cereals produced in Russia. Porridges are made from buckwheat, millet, oatmeal, barley, pearl barley, corn, rice and other cereals. The most common additives in cereals are dairy products – milk, yogurt, buttermilk, sour cream, cottage cheese and cream. In second place are meat, fish, peas, eggs and mushrooms. To create a sweet range, in addition to sugar, they use jam, honey, raisins, apricots, dried apricots, nuts, fresh fruits, chocolate, suitable for white cereals (semolina, rice). Black and red pepper, parsley, celery, parsnips, garlic, cinnamon, star anise, zest, nutmeg, vanilla are used in porridge from spices.
One of the most ancient Russian dishes is pancakes. No one knows when pancakes appeared on the Russian table, but it is known that they were a ritual dish among the pagan Slavic peoples. One of the traditions associated with pancakes that has survived to this day is Maslenitsa, an ancient pagan holiday. During the whole week before Lent, pancakes are baked in all Russian homes and eaten with various snacks – caviar, sour cream, fish, meat, mushrooms.
Speaking of Russian dishes, one cannot fail to mention pies – the most famous and favorite dish of Russian cuisine. The filling for Russian pies is most often prepared from one product. It can be a filling of vegetables (cabbage, peas, carrots, turnips, potatoes, onions, sorrel), mushrooms (dry, fresh boiled, fried and salted of all kinds), a variety of steep cereals with a high oil content (usually rice), vyazigi and fish, meat, poultry (usually chicken), cottage cheese, eggs, game. Pies with complex fillings are called kulebyaks. As for the fillings for sweet pies, most of them are made from jam (apple, currant, raspberry, cherry, strawberry, strawberry, blueberry, lingonberry), raisins with rice, prunes and figs, poppy seeds with sugar, dried bird cherry with sugar and honey.
Since the 18th century, Russian cuisine began to acquire European features. At this time, salads appeared and became widespread in Russia, which have since become one of the most popular elements of the Russian table. One of the Russian inventions was the vinaigrette, known throughout the world as “Russian salad”. The highlight of the vinaigrette is the use of primordially Russian products in it as ingredients – sauerkraut or pickles. Another well-known salad whose recipe was created in Russia is Olivier. It was invented in the middle of the 19th century by the French chef Lucien Olivier, who owned the Hermitage tavern in Moscow. Today salad “olivier” can be seen both in the restaurant menu and on the home table of Russians.
The Soviet era enriched Russian cuisine with the traditions of other peoples of the USSR. And Ukrainian borsch, and Siberian dumplings, Kazakh manti, and Uzbek pilaf, and Caucasian shish kebab – all these dishes can rightfully be attributed to recipes that have found their place in the Russian menu and made Russian cuisine one of the most diverse in the world.