The region in which present-day Portugal is located was inhabited at least five hundred thousand years ago, first by Neanderthals and later by modern men.
In the 1st century BC, the Iberian Peninsula was inhabited by the so-called historiographically pre-Roman peoples. Those in the Mediterranean fringe and valleys of the Ebro and Guadalquivir received the collective name of Iberos, while those in the interior were associated with Celtic cultural influence. Consideration of such names as a reflection of an ethnic or cultural unity that was very far from being produced should be avoided.
The Iberian Peninsula was, together with northern Italy, the main scene of the Second Punic War between Carthage and the Roman Empire. It was during this war when Roman troops arrived on the peninsular coasts for the first time. After the conquest of Carthage by Rome, the Carthaginians had to renounce the peninsula in favor of the Romans (in 206 BC). This result, after the end of the Second Punic War, developed from 202 BC onwards. Rome maintained power in the territory for almost four centuries.
- 395-409 Western Roman Empire
In 409 the so-called barbarian peoples, Suevos, Alanos and Vandals, settle in Hispania. The Visigoths enter the Iberian Peninsula at the service of the Roman Empire with the aim of subjugating the invaders.
The barbarian peoples were numerically inferior to the Hispano-Roman population, so their strategy was in the first place to remain as a ruling minority strictly separated from the autochthonous majority. The cities suffered a strong decline and both urban ways of life and the economy suffered a strong ruralization.
In 711 the Iberian Peninsula was occupied by the troops of the Umayyad Caliphate who fought for two centuries to gain control of the pan-island.
- 712-750 Umayyad Caliphate
- 750-755 Abbasid Caliphate
- There was a change of dynasty, following a massacre.
- 755-868 Emirate of Córdoba
- The last Pomeian prince, takes refuge in Córdoba, and becomes politically independent from Damascus.
- 868-910 Emirate of Córdoba and Kingdom of Asturias
- The Asturians, led by Alfonso III, expand and control the area north of the Duero River.
- 910-913 Emirate of Córdoba and Kingdom of Galicia
- The kingdom of Asturias, is divided between his children.
- 913-921 Emirate of Córdoba and Kingdom of León.
- The brother of the Galician king, invades his territory.
- 921-1009 Caliphate of Córdoba and Kingdom of León
- The Emir of Córdoba, religiously became independent from Damascus.
- 1009-1063 Taifa de Badajoz (center), Taifa de Silves (south) and Reino de León
- The dismemberment of the Caliphate of Córdoba occurs for internal reasons.
- 1033-1044 Taifa de Badajoz (center), Taifa de Silves, Taifa de Mértola (south) and Kingdom of León
- 1044-1063 Taifa de Badajoz (center), Taifa de Silves, Taifa de Sevilla (south) and Reino de León
- 1063-1091 Taifa de Badajoz (center), Taifa de Sevilla (south) and Kingdom of León
- 1091-1094 Taifa de Badajoz (center), Almoravid Empire (south) and Kingdom of León
- 1094-1139 Almoravid Empire (south) and Kingdom of León
Center and South
- 1144-1145 Almoravid Empire (south), Taifa de Badajoz, Taifa de Mértola
- 1145-1146 Taifa de Badajoz, Taifa de Silves
- 1146-1150 Taifa de Badajoz, Taifa de Silves, Taifa de Mértola, Taifa de Tavira
- 1150-1228 Almohad Caliphate
Dedicating himself to overseas discoveries with the excuse of continuing with the crusades to spread Christianity. Muslims who were not expelled or killed during the reconquest had to acquire local customs including the Christian creed. There are no certain data on the presence of Berber components in the current Portuguese population, but some scientists suggest that there is.
Birth of Portugal
Afonso Henriques l fights against the troops of Alfonso VII of León and Castilla and in parallel against the Almoravid Empire. In 1139, Alfonso Henriques achieved an important victory against the Moors at the Battle of Ourique, having declared independence with the support of the Portuguese leaders, who acclaimed him as king.
On this date, 1139, the Kingdom of Portugal and its first dynasty were officially born, with Alfonso I of Portugal as king. On October 5, 1143, by the Treaty of Zamora, its independence is recognized. On March 15, 1147, he took Santarém and on October 25, 1147, he took Lisbon.
- 1185-1211 Sancho I
- 1211-1223 Alfonso II
- 1223-1248 Sancho II
- In 1239 he conquered Ayamonte  and in 1242 he handed it over to Castile.
- 1248-1279 Alfonso III
- 1253-1267 returns to control Ayamonte.
- 1279-1325 Dionysus
- In 1297 he conquered Olivenza.
- 1325-1357 Alfonso IV
- 1357-1367 Peter I
- 1367-1383 Ferdinand I
- 1383-1385 Beatrice
- 1385-1433 John I “the Great”
- In 1418, João Gonçalves Zarco, discovered Madeira.
- In 1427, they discover the Azores islands.
- 1433-1438 Duarte “the Philosopher”
- 1438-1481 Alfonso V “the African”
- On September 4, 1476, Treaty of Alcáçovas, with Portugal. Castile recognizes Portuguese sovereignty over Ceuta, and Castilian over the Canary Islands.
- 1481-1495 John II “the Perfect”
- On June 7, 1494, Treaty of Tordesillas, recognizes that Ceuta is Portuguese, and Portugal that the Canaries are Castilian.
At the beginning of the 15th century, some campaigns were carried out outside the Portuguese territory, which led to the conquest of places in Africa, such as Ceuta and Tangier. Due to the wealth that these new territorial acquisitions brought, the Portuguese decided to continue with the overseas expeditions to describe more territories with which to trade.
As a country that belongs to European Union according to elaineqho.com, Portugal decides to send several expeditions along the African Coast, discovering Madeira, São Tomé and Príncipe, Cape Verde, Angola and Guinea, until Juan II, based on data that he wanted to clarify, starts a project destined to turn Portugal into one of international powers, the discovery of the sea route to India.
1495-1521 Manuel I
- In December 1498, a fleet of eight ships, under the command of Duarte Pacheco Pereira, reached the Brazilian coast.
- Vasco da Gama, already in the time of Manuel I, discovered the Indian Ocean and expanded the Portuguese presence throughout the East African coast to India. Meanwhile, news came from Spain that Christopher Columbus had discovered lands to the west, what would later be called the West Indies.
1521-1557 John III “the Pious”
- 1557-1562 Catherine, regent
- 1562-1568 Enrique, Archbishop of Lisbon, Regent
At his death, a war broke out between the prior of Crato, Antonio (d. 1580) and Felipe II of Spain.
1580-1640 Kingdom of Spain
- Council of Portugal (1580-1668)
1640-1809 Kingdom of Portugal and Algarve
House of Braganza
- 1640-1656 John IV
- 1656-1683 Alfonso VI
- On February 13, 1668, Spain recognizes the independence of Portugal, Portugal recognizes that Ceuta is Spanish.
- 1683-1706 Peter III
- 1706-1750 John V
- In the seventeenth century the Portuguese emigrated in large numbers to Brazil. In 1709, Juan V prohibited emigration, since the country had lost a large portion of its population. Brazil was turned into a viceroyalty and the Amerindians were released.
- 1750-1777 Joseph
- 1777-1786 Mary I and Peter III
- On March 11, 1778, by the Treaty of El Pardo, he exchanged Rio Grande do Sul with Spain in exchange for the islands of Annobón and Fernando Poo.
- 1789-1809 Mary I
- From May 20 to June 6, 1801, War of the Oranges, against Portugal, the squares of Olivenza and Juromenha are taken and Elvas and Campo Mayor are besieged. The Badajoz Treaty of June 6, 1801, returned all the squares to Portugal, with the exception of the Olivenza district.
In 1807 the Portuguese crown fled from Napoleon and settled in Brazil, which ceased to be a colony to become a kingdom and head of the empire.
1809-1810 I Empire of France
1815-1821 United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
- 1810-1816 Maria I
- Proclaimed December 16, 1815.
- 1816-1826 John VI
- On September 7, 1822, the crown prince, Pedro, proclaimed himself the independent emperor of Brazil.
1825-1842 Kingdom of Portugal and Algarve
Proclaimed on May 13, 1825
- 1826 Pedro IV (Pedro I of Brazil)
- 1826-1828 Mary II
- 1828-1834 Michael I
- 1834-1837 Mary II
1842-1910 Kingdom of Portugal
On February 10, 1842, it is proclaimed.
- 1837-1853 Maria II and Ferdinand II
- 1853-1861 Peter V
- 1861-1889 Louis
- 1889-1908 Carlos
- 1908-1910 Manuel II, m. 1932
1910-1926 I Republic
1926-1933 Military Junta
In 1926 a fascist dictatorship had begun in Portugal under the government of António de Oliveira Salazar, he was dismissed in 1968 due to disability and died in 1970.
1933-1968 Estado Nuovo, by Oliveira Salazar
After World War II, when decolonization began, Portugal resisted granting independence to its colonies. In 1961, after the loss of Goa, invaded by India, independence guerrillas appeared in Angola and Mozambique, starting a long colonial war that soon after spread to Guinea-Bissau.
1968-1974, Regime of Marcelo Caetano
Any attempt at political reform was aborted due to the regime’s own inertia and the power of its political police.
The attrition by the war on three fronts led to a part of the army leading the Carnation Revolution in 1974 and promising decolonization.
The 25 of April of 1974 a group of military manages to take power without violence ubiese, so the fact was called Revolution of the Carnations. Freedom of expression and thought, recognition of existing political parties and negotiation with the independence movements of the colonies were restored.
The 25 of April of 1975 a year after the revolution, the first democratic elections are held, the aim was to elect a Constituent Assembly to provide the country with a democratic constitution. The new constitution would be promulgated on 2 April as as 1976 meeting in force until today, although it has been revised several times.
The African colonies, along with East Timor, São Tomé and Príncipe and Cape Verde became independent in 1975. The last Portuguese colony, Macao, ceased to be under Portuguese rule in 1999, when it was incorporated into China.