Poland Geography and Climate

Poland offers a varied holiday. These are sightseeing of cultural and natural attractions, skiing, recreation in the mountains, on lakes and on the Baltic coast; active recreation – sailing, river rafting, various hikes, various health programs.

The country is rich in historical monuments. 13 objects on its territory are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. It is worth visiting not only large cities (Warsaw, Krakow, Poznan, Wroclaw, Lodz), but also small ones, such as Torun, the birthplace of Nicolaus Copernicus, Malbork, the former capital of the Crusaders, Czestochowa, a place of pilgrimage for Catholics from all over the world, and many others.

In Poland, there are ample opportunities for eco-tourism due to the large number of wilderness areas. There are 22 national and 122 landscape parks and thousands of natural monuments in the country, the most famous of which are the Masurian Lakes, the Biebrza Marshes, the Tatra Mountains, the Bieszczady, the Beskydy and the Sudetes.

The Baltic coast is 500 km of sandy beaches. Rest in this area is suitable for those who do not like the sweltering heat. An excellent European-level infrastructure has been created here, which will allow you to spend time comfortably.

Conditions for skiing are created in the mountain ranges in the south and south-west of the country: in the Karkonosze, Beskydy and Tatras. You can ride from December to March, and in some resorts until April.

The most popular resort is Zakopane, which is called the winter capital of Poland.

Health resorts in Poland use a variety of treatment methods. On the Baltic coast and in Central Poland, resorts are rich in therapeutic mud, in the Sudetes – carbonic and radon mineral waters, in the Carpathians – iodine hydrogen sulfide sources.

Sightseeing in Poland is possible all year round. The skiing season lasts from December to March, and in some resorts until April. For a beach holiday on the Baltic coast and on the lakes, the best months are July and August. Hiking is best done between April and September.

The official language of the country is Polish. English, German and Russian are among the best known foreign languages, especially in large urban centers. But since the study of foreign languages became widespread only a few years ago, the foreign traveler may still experience some language difficulties, especially in small towns or remote areas.

Geography in Poland

According to top-engineering-schools, Poland is a state in Central Europe. In the west, it borders on Germany, in the south – on the Czech Republic and Slovakia, in the east – on Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine, in the northeast – on the Kaliningrad region of Russia. From the north, the country is washed by the waters of the Baltic Sea. The territory of Poland is 312.7 km2.

A characteristic feature of the relief of Poland is the predominance of lowlands in the north and mountains and uplands in the south. The lowlands occupy about 3/4 of the country’s territory. The coast of the Baltic Sea is characterized by beautiful, sandy and wide beaches. The main mountain systems are the Sudetes in the southwest with the highest point Mount Snezhka (1603 m) and the Carpathians in the south. The Sudetes are a chain of low mountains not exceeding 1500 m. The Tatras are the central part of the Carpathians, the highest point of which within Poland is Mount Rysy (2499 m). The High Tatras have sharp mountain peaks, deep gorges and glacial landforms in the ridge zone. The lower ranges of the Carpathians, called the Beskids, are rounded and largely covered with forests. To the north of the mountains, hilly regions are distinguished with characteristic heights of 300 – 600 m.

The main rivers Poland – Odra and Vistula. They cross the country in a meridional direction. In winter, the rivers freeze for 1-4 months. The Vistula is the main river of Poland, on it the old capital of the Polish state – Krakow and the modern one – Warsaw are located. At the mouth of the river, on the shores of the Baltic Sea, is the large port of Gdansk.

There are about 9 thousand picturesque lakes in Poland, mainly located in the north of the country – in the Masurian and Pomeranian lakelands. The largest of them is Lake Shnyardvy, with an area of ​​​​about 113 km 2. There are also many reservoirs.

In Poland 22 national and 122 landscape parks have been created. A part of Belovezhskaya Pushcha is also located on the territory of the country.

Climate in Poland

The climate of Poland is characterized by a changeable character. Wet and cloudy periods are often followed by dry and clear periods. The nature of the climate is mainly determined by the dominance of the western transport, which supplies humid and warm air from the Atlantic throughout the year.

Three climatic zones can be distinguished on the territory of the country: the Baltic coast, the central lowland and elevated regions, and the southern mountainous regions.

The climate of the Baltic coast is the most unstable. The coldest month is January, with an average temperature of around -2 degrees. In winter, the temperature variation is small: in the daytime the air warms up to +1…+3 o C, at night it cools down to -2…-4 oC. The warmest month is July with an average temperature of +17 degrees. Daytime temperature in July, depending on the place, ranges from +20 to +23 o C, nighttime – +10… +13 o C. About 600 mm of precipitation falls annually, with their maximum amount falling on July and August (80 -90 mm), and the minimum – for March (about 30 mm).

The central lowlands and uplands are somewhat drier and warmer during the summer months. The average temperature in January is -2 o С, with an average daily temperature of about 0 and a night temperature of -4…-6 oC. The warmest month is also July with an average temperature of +24 degrees during the day and +14 degrees at night. The annual rainfall in this area is 520-540 mm. In the annual course, the maximum occurs in July (80 mm), the minimum – in February-March (25-30 mm).

The southern mountainous regions are characterized by snowy and sunny winters and cool summers. The average January temperature in Zakopane is -5.4 degrees. During the day, slightly negative temperatures are typical for these territories, and at night the thermometer drops to -10. In July, the average daytime temperature is +20 o C, at night – +9.6 o C. The highest amount of precipitation falls in the mountains, in the Tatras their annual amount reaches 1800 mm. The rainiest month is July (170 mm) and the driest month is January (41 mm).

Best time to visit:
Sightseeing in Poland is possible all year round. The skiing season lasts from December to March, and in some resorts until April. For a beach holiday on the Baltic coast and on the lakes, the best months are July and August. Hiking is best done between April and September.

Poland Geography