Montenegro Geography and Climate

Montenegro is called the “virgin forest” of Europe. This small country with a turbulent history has only recently regained its independence. Sandy and pebble beaches, clear Adriatic Sea, old fortresses and medieval cities, monasteries and churches, harsh mountain slopes and unique nature reserves – all this can be found in Montenegro.

For a beach holiday, July and August are best suited – the hottest, driest and sunniest months. In September, when the sea is still warm, and the main wave of tourists has already subsided, you can also have a great rest on the sea. Diving, windsurfing, paragliding and other sports, as well as sightseeing, can be practiced almost all year round, except November-December. You can safely go on a trip to the mountainous regions from April to October. The ski season lasts from December to March.

Article 9 of the Constitution establishes that the state language in Montenegro is the Iekava dialect of the Serbian language, Cyrillic and Latin are equally used in writing. In communities where a significant part of the population is made up of national minorities, other languages are also officially used (for example, Albanian in the Ulcinj community). In Montenegro, many people know Russian, and English can only be explained in the main tourist centers.

Geography in Catalog of countries Montenegro

According to top-engineering-schools, Montenegro is a small country located in the southwestern part of the Balkan Peninsula on the coast of the Adriatic Sea. Its area is only 13.8 thousand km 2. Nevertheless, 4 different natural and climatic regions can be distinguished on the territory of the country: coastal, plateau, highlands and flat, overlooking Lake Skadar. Montenegro borders Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Croatia to the coast, Serbia to the north and northeast, and Albania to the east. From the south it is bounded by the Adriatic Sea, the length of the coastline is about 300 km. The length of the beaches is 73 km, of which 56 km are sandy beaches. Montenegrin coast, only 2-10 km wide, is sandwiched between the sea and the rocky plateau that abruptly breaks off towards it. In Montenegro, one of the best harbors in Europe is located – the Bay of Kotor (protrudes into the coast for more than 20 km), consisting of several spacious bays interconnected by narrow channels. For a long time there was a belief that the bay is a fjord, but now it is believed that the Bay of Kotor is the remains of a river canyon that once existed here. Strong tectonic and karst processes led to its gradual destruction.

A karst plateau rises above the coast, the terrain here is harsh, but beautiful in its own way. The rocks dry out quickly: even the heaviest annual downpours cannot significantly moisten the soil, so there are few plants and animals here. Rare patches of fertile land are found only on small plains and crater-like depressions. The Lovcen National Park is located here.

The basin of Lake Skadar, the fertile plain of the Zeta River, the Belopavlitskaya Plain and the Niksic Field make up a flat area with a height difference of 350 m. The main part of the population of Montenegro lives in the flat area. Here are the two largest cities in the country – Podgorica and Niksic , and there is also a national park “Skadar lake”.

In the north of the country, northeast of the rivers Piva, Komarnica and Moraca, there is a highland region. In the highlands, 4 large mountain ranges can be distinguished: Vizitor, Durmitor and Komovi (they form the Dinaric Highlands) and Prokletie (Cursed Mountains). The height of the peaks reaches more than 2000 m above sea level. The highest point in Montenegro – Mount Bobotov Kuk (2522 m) is located in the Durmitor massif. In the highlands there are pastures and forests, numerous mountain lakes. The rivers Piva, Tara, Moraca and their tributaries carved narrow canyons with steep banks in the rocks. The Tara River Canyon is the largest in Europe and the second in the world, its depth reaches 1300 m. There are also two national parks in this region – “Biogradska Gora” and “Durmitor”.

Climate in Montenegro

Montenegro has a Mediterranean type of climate, which is characterized by dry and hot summers and cool winters with heavy rainfall. Despite the fact that the territory of the country is small, 4 climatic regions can be distinguished here: the coast, the rocky plateau, the plain and the highlands.

A narrow strip, 2 – 10 km wide along the coast of Montenegro, has the most pronounced features of the Mediterranean climate. The summer there is hot (the average daily temperature in July is 28..30 o C), and there is little precipitation (25 – 50 mm per month). The rainy period lasts from November to January, at this time 170 – 260 mm falls per month, in the north of the coast there is 1.5 times more precipitation than in the south. The average monthly temperature at night in January does not fall below 4..5 o C, and in the daytime 11..13 oC. Negative temperatures are not observed every year. The swimming season lasts 5 months from the end of May to October, the water temperature is 20..25 o C.

A rocky plateau separates the coast from the interior of the country. It receives the most precipitation in Europe, as its southwestern slopes trap the humid air coming from the sea. So, in the village of Krivosie, located above the Bay of Kotor, 480 mm of precipitation per day was noted. In the town of Crkvice, the maximum annual rainfall was 5155 mm, and in the cultural capital of the country, Cetinje, located on a plateau near Mount Lovcen, the maximum average annual rainfall (3927 mm / year). As well as on the coast, there is noticeably less precipitation in summer (60 – 80 mm in July), and the rainiest month is November (500 – 700 mm). The height difference between the coast and the plateau is on average 1000 m, and the height of some peaks reaches 1700 m. Therefore, in summer it is cooler here than on the coast,o C depending on the height. In winter, the average temperature at night is -3..-5 o C, and in the daytime 5..8 o C. Snow usually falls in December and remains until mid-March.

The plain is protected by a rocky plateau from the direct impact of the Adriatic Sea, therefore it is hotter here in summer than on the coast (average daily temperature in July is 30..32 o C), and cooler in winter: on average 0..3 o C at night and 9..11 o Happy day. Precipitation falls mainly in autumn and winter. In July, 30 – 60 mm of precipitation falls, and in November 250 – 300 mm.

The climate of the highlands has features of subalpine. In winter, the average temperature at night is -6..-9 o ะก, and in the daytime 0..3 oC, but it decreases with height. Snow usually falls at the end of November and remains until the end of March. Precipitation falls evenly throughout the year, with a maximum in November (it can fall from 100 to 300 mm per month, depending on the orientation of the slope). Summers are cool, the average temperature during the day is 19..23 o C (it can be colder in the high mountains!), and at night 8..10 o C.

The best time to visit:
For a beach holiday, July and August are best suited – the hottest, driest and sunniest months. In September, when the sea is still warm, and the main wave of tourists has already subsided, you can also have a great rest on the sea. Diving, windsurfing, paragliding and other sports, as well as sightseeing, can be practiced almost all year round, except November-December. You can safely go on a trip to the mountainous regions from April to October. The ski season lasts from December to March.

Montenegro Geography