Mongolia Geography and Climate

Mongolia is the birthplace of the great conqueror Genghis Khan, whose powerful empire in the Middle Ages kept in fear not only all of Asia, but Russia and Europe. Nowadays, this country is popular among lovers of eco-tourism, because its nature is practically not affected by human activity. Majestic mountains, numerous lakes with the purest water, endless steppes and the vast Gobi desert attract tourists from all over the world.

The best time to travel to Mongolia is between May and September. In July, the main festival of the year, Naadam, is celebrated throughout the country. At this time, many tourists come to Mongolia who want to get acquainted with the Mongolian culture. The fishing season runs from the end of August to the end of October.

The official language of Mongolia is Mongolian (Khalkha-Mongolian). Kazakh, Russian and Chinese languages are also widely spoken in the country.

Geography in Mongolia

According to top-engineering-schools, Mongolia is located in East Asia. In the north, the country borders on Russia, in the east, south and west – on the People’s Republic of China. Mongolia is landlocked. The area of the state is 1564 thousand square meters. km.

Mongolia is one of the highest mountainous countries in the world, its relief is dominated by mountains and plateaus: the Mongolian Altai and Gobi Altai in the west and southwest of the country, the Khentei highlands, the Khan Huhei mountains, Ulan Taiga and the Eastern Sayan – in the north of the country – and mountains Khangai – in the center. The average heights of Mongolia are about 1580 m. The highest point of the country – Nairamdal peak (4374 m) – is located in Altai in the north-west of the state on the border with Russia, the lowest point of the state is Lake Khukh-nur (532 m).

The largest rivers in Mongolia are the Selenga, which flows into Lake Baikal, Kerulen, Onon, Khalkhin-gol and Kobdo. All of them originate in the mountains. There are about 3,000 lakes in the country, many of them are unstable – they become smaller or dry up during the dry season. In the north-west of Mongolia there are lakes Ubsu-nur, Khara-Us-nur, Khirgis-nur, in the east – Buyr-nur and Khukh-nur, in the central part in the Khangai mountains – Lake Khubsugul. Khubsugul is often called the “brother” of Baikal. The lake was formed as a result of the same tectonic processes about 5 million years ago, its depth reaches 262 m, and in terms of fresh water reserves it ranks 14th in the world.

Climate in Mongolia

Mongolia is dominated by a temperate sharply continental type of climate, which is characterized by large seasonal and daily temperature ranges. Winters are harsh and summers are hot. The coldest month in Mongolia is January and the warmest month is July. In winter, a high pressure center is established over the country, so in winter the weather is clear and frosty. In January, daytime air temperatures in most of Mongolia reach -15..-17 degrees, and nighttime temperatures drop to -30 degrees. In July, during the daytime, the air warms up to +24..+26 degrees, and at night it cools down to +11..+13 degrees. The climate of the Gobi desert is the most severe, with 50-degree frosts in winter and 40-degree heat in summer.

In Mongolia, there are about 250 sunny days a year, the reason for this is the mountains, which do not allow humid oceanic air masses to pass deep into the country. On average, 220 mm of precipitation falls annually on the territory of Mongolia. During the year, up to 500 mm of precipitation falls in the mountains, up to 250 mm of precipitation in the capital of the country, up to 100 mm of precipitation in the flat areas, and up to 50 mm of precipitation in the Gobi desert. Most of the precipitation falls from May to September in the form of intermittent rain showers. In the period from May to June, dust storms often occur in desert areas, wind speeds at this time can reach 15-25 m/s.

Best time to visit:
The best time to travel to Mongolia is between May and September. In July, the main festival of the year, Naadam, is celebrated throughout the country. At this time, many tourists come to Mongolia who want to get acquainted with the Mongolian culture. The fishing season runs from the end of August to the end of October.

Mongolia Geography