Luxembourg is a small country in Western Europe. It is a land of untouched forests and river valleys dotted with medieval castles. The ancient cities of Luxembourg are full of historical sights and museums. It was in the Luxembourg city of Schengen in 1985 that the Schengen Agreement was signed. The southern part of the country with the Moselle river valley is known for its vineyards and centers for the production of wine.
The best time to visit Luxembourg is from May to October when the weather is warm and comfortable.
The official languages in the country are French, German and Luxembourgish (this is one of the dialects of the German language with an admixture of French). English is spoken by the majority of the adult population of cities.
Geography in Luxembourg
According to top-engineering-schools, Luxembourg is located in Western Europe. In the north and west, the country borders on Belgium, in the east – on Germany, in the south – on France. Area of Luxembourg – 2,586 sq. km.
The spurs of the Ardennes enter the north of the country, so mountainous terrain prevails here with heights of 400-500 m, the highest point in the country is Mount Burgplatz 560 m. Plains stretch in the southern part of Luxembourg.
The large European river Moselle flows through the country. Its tributary – the river Sur – is one of the main water arteries of the country. On its southern tributary Alzette stands the capital of Luxembourg.
Climate in Luxembourg
Luxembourg has a temperate type of climate, transitional from maritime to continental. The hottest month is July, at this time during the daytime the air warms up to 22..24 degrees of heat, and at night it is about +12..+14 degrees. Winter here is mild, the coldest month is January. In January, during the day the air temperature fluctuates from 1 to 3 degrees of heat, at night – from -3 to -1 degrees.
During the year, 760 mm of precipitation falls in the south of the country, and the greatest amount of precipitation falls in the north of the country – up to 900 mm, snowfalls are frequent here in winter. Precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, small maxima are observed in May, June and November, December.
Best time to visit:
The best time to visit Luxembourg is between May and October when the weather is warm and comfortable.
History in Luxembourg
Translated from the old German, Luxembourg means “small castle”, because in ancient times in the 5th century AD. on the banks of the river Alzette there was a small settlement of the Franks, which was protected by fortress walls. These fortifications were impregnable for many centuries, and in history they began to be mentioned from 963 as an independent state.
In the 11th century, one of the descendants of Charlemagne, who ruled here – Conrad, appropriated the title of Count of Luxembourg and became the ancestor of the first royal dynasty. In 1437, as a result of the marriage of one of Conrad’s relatives to the German king Albert II, the Duchy of Luxembourg passed to the Habsburg dynasty. In 1443 it was captured by the Duke of Burgundy, and the power of the Habsburgs was restored only in 1477. In 1555, these lands, together with Holland and Flanders, came under the rule of Spain. During the war between Spain and France in the 17th century, Luxembourg was transferred several times from one power to another and, by the beginning of the 18th century, remained under the rule of France. After the reign of Napoleon I at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Luxembourg was handed over to King William of the Netherlands in exchange for other lands. In 1830, during the Belgian uprising, which were also under the rule of Wilhelm, Luxembourg supported the rebels. The European powers, fearing another war, concluded an agreement in 1839 that the western part with the French-speaking population of Luxembourg became a province of Belgium, while the rest of the country remained under the rule of Wilhelm and entered the German Confederation. In 1887, after the collapse of the confederation, the independence and neutrality of Luxembourg was proclaimed.
But the neutrality of Luxembourg was violated with the outbreak of the First World War. In 1914-1918 the country was occupied by the German army. In 1939 – 1945, the occupation was repeated during the Second World War, followed by the accession of Luxembourg to the Nazi Reich. In response, the population of the country declared a general strike, to which the Germans responded with mass repressions. In September 1944, Allied troops liberated Luxembourg. In 1944 – 1948 the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg united in the Benelux customs union, and in 1958 they created an economic union. Luxembourg signed the Schengen Agreement in June 1990, which abolished border controls in the Benelux countries, France and Germany. Now the country is a member of the UN, EU, NATO and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Types of Tourism in Luxembourg
The nature of Luxembourg is very beautiful – in the north of the country the spurs of the Ardennes stretch, in the east there is an area called “Little Switzerland”, and in the south is the valley of the Moselle River. In the northern part of Luxembourg, in the Essling region, on an area of 358 sq. km stretches the German-Luxembourg National Park, part of which is located in Germany. It is a hill with separate peaks. Here is the highest point in the country – Mount Burgplatz (559 m). In the National Park in 1960, after the construction of a dam, an artificial lake was formed, its area is 380 hectares. The lake is a wonderful place for recreation, it is surrounded by forests, where you can fish and swim in the summer.
Luxembourg – a great place for lovers of hiking. The best travel areas are “Little Switzerland” in the east of the country and Essling in the north. In Essling, within the National Park, there are numerous trails, they have a length of 9 to 40 km and are suitable for tourists of various levels of preparedness. The “Little Switzerland” region offers tourists routes through river valleys, rock formations and acquaintance with the country during a trip through ancient villages.
In the rivers and small lakes of Luxembourg, you can fish, only for this you need to issue a special permit. Fishermen come to Luxembourg to catch trout.
The excursion program of Luxembourg includes trips to the country’s ancient cities, sightseeing of medieval castles, trips to natural attractions and the “wine” valley of the Moselle River.