Libya History – Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

The creation of the People’s Socialist Libyan Arab Ǧamāhīriyya, on the basis of the constitution of March 2, 1977, substantially changed the ideological order and state systems of Libya. The General People’s Congress (a body established in 1975, apex of a pyramid structure of popular committees present in all public bodies and companies in the country) elected a General People’s Committee of 26 members, which replaced the Council of Ministers, and a General Secretariat of the Congress, chaired by Gaddafi (al-Qadhdhāfī), who replaced the Revolution Command Council at the top of the state; the Libyan embassies gave way to the so-called ” people’s offices ”, with a radical transformation of the old diplomatic structures. In March 1979 Gaddafi himself resigned from the post of secretary general of the People’s Congress (head of state) and remained ” head of the revolution ” dedicated himself to the application of the principles set out in his ” Green Book ” (published in three volumes between 1976 and 1979). The institutional consolidation of the regime was accompanied by the stiffening of the fight against the oppositions, especially starting from 1980 when a violent campaign against anti-revolutionary elements began, at home and abroad, which was to continue in the following years. (published in three volumes between 1976 and 1979). The institutional consolidation of the regime was accompanied by the stiffening of the fight against the oppositions, especially starting from 1980 when a violent campaign against anti-revolutionary elements began, at home and abroad, which was to continue in the following years. (published in three volumes between 1976 and 1979). The institutional consolidation of the regime was accompanied by the stiffening of the fight against the oppositions, especially starting from 1980 when a violent campaign against anti-revolutionary elements began, at home and abroad, which was to continue in the following years. For Libya history, please check ehistorylib.com.

However, the internal oppositions did not cease their activities, culminating on May 17, 1984 in the unsuccessful attempt to storm Gaddafi’s fortified residence near Tripoli. Although the government always managed to maintain control of the situation, internal dissent movements and a certain political isolation on the international level gradually led Gaddafi to take a more moderate attitude. 1988 was marked by the launch of various reforms aimed at greater respect for human rights in politics and a prudent reopening towards private enterprise in the economy.

In foreign policy, Libya stood out for her intransigent attitude towards the Palestinian question and for the rejection of any compromise with Israel (with consequent condemnation of the Egyptian peace initiatives). At the same time, relations with the United States deteriorated more and more, in a crescendo of tensions that culminated in the bombing of Tripoli and Benghazi by the US air force, which took place on April 15, 1986.

On the international level, relations with Egypt, already very tense starting in 1973, came, following the separate peace between Egypt and Israel (March 1979), to the breakdown of diplomatic relations, while the Libya constituted, together with Algeria, PLO, Syria and South Yemen, the so-called ” rejection front ”. Libyan foreign policy, marked by a strongly anti-Israeli and anti-Western Arab nationalism, was marked during the 1980s by repeated tensions also with other Arab countries, such as Jordan, Tunisia, Morocco (excluding a period of rapprochement with the latter. between 1984 and 1986, during which a political unification was attempted), the ῾Irāq, the Sudān of Numeirī. At the same time, relations with the United States deteriorated more and more, which together with other countries, especially from the Western world, they accused Libya of being involved in episodes of international terrorism. After a military clash in the Gulf of Sirte (August 1981), the growing tension between the two states led to the bombing of Tripoli and Benghazi by the US air force on April 15, 1986. Still in 1989, US military aircraft struck two Libyan fighters in flight over international waters in the Mediterranean.

Another event of great international importance was the military involvement of Libya in Chad. Taking advantage of what was established in a 1935 treaty, never ratified, between France and Italy, since the beginning of 1973 the Libyan troops had occupied the Ūzū strip in northern Chad, providing aid to rebel formations against the central government. In the following years, several times Libya found herself supporting various guerrilla movements, while the government of N’djamena starting from 1983 received aid from France. In 1989 Chad and Libya signed a peace agreement, while the dispute over the Ūzū strip was entrusted, in August 1990, to arbitration by the International Court of Justice.

The improvement of interregional relations, which occurred starting from 1987, allowed Libya to participate in the creation, in February 1989, of the Arab Maghreb Union, on the basis of a political and economic integration treaty to which Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania and Tunisia. The first difficulties in presenting a common position of the countries of the Union showed themselves, however, in August 1990 in the face of the crisis born of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, during which Libya adopted a position of open support for Irāq. A further phase of tension opened in November 1991 with the United States and Great Britain accusing two Libyan citizens of being responsible for the December 1988 explosion of a US airliner over the Scottish town of Lockerbie.

Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

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