Italy in Neolithic Ages Part I

According to ELAINEQHO, the understanding of the Neolithic phenomenon in Italy is closely linked to the appearance of new economic forms during the course of the 8th millennium BC in areas of the Near East, considered to be of primary onset. The profound change that took place in the relationship between man and the environment had evident social repercussions: the exploitation, protracted over time, of a limited habitat allowed the stability of the settlements and therefore the emergence of an associative life and of specific structures and tools connected to the new activities: silos and ovens, millstones, pestles, sickles. The production of food resources based on the planned exploitation of the environment was both cause and effect of a conspicuous demographic increase and a progressive alteration of the natural environments. The result was a division into groups, also for reasons of internal balance within the communities themselves, and a consequent search for land suitable for the new type of economy. According to various authors, this is one of the reasons for the rapid spread, throughout temperate Europe, of the new agricultural and livestock economy. In Italy, the introduction of the economy of production seems to have occurred in several moments and in different ways. It is therefore difficult to assess the extent of the diffusion phenomenon, concretely witnessed in Italian Neolithic contexts by animal and plant species introduced in an already domestic form. the introduction of the economy of production seems to have occurred in several moments and in different ways. It is therefore difficult to assess the extent of the diffusion phenomenon, concretely witnessed in Italian Neolithic contexts by animal and plant species introduced in an already domestic form. the introduction of the economy of production seems to have occurred in several moments and in different ways. It is therefore difficult to assess the extent of the diffusion phenomenon, concretely witnessed in Italian Neolithic contexts by animal and plant species introduced in an already domestic form.

Southern Italy 

In the cave dwellings of the Italy southern coastal, the stratigraphic sequences indicate a continuity of habitation starting from the Paleolithic; the modifications, in the Neolithic levels, seem to affect only some marginal aspects (such as the introduction of pottery and, at times, of agriculture and domestic animals), without profoundly altering the socio-economic framework of these groups. The Uzzo and Sperlinga caves in Sicily and those of the Mura and Prazziche in Puglia, for example, testify to the existence of small groups in which the subsistence base indicates a certain continuity with the previous residents; gathering (in particular that of molluscs) and often hunting are always of great importance. According to some authors, these nuclei,

According to ITYPEAUTO, the organicity in the occupation of the territory, the systematic nature of the plant, the size of the built-up area, the ability to exploit intensely and for a long time a restricted area, are demonstrated, for example, by the distribution of the villages in the Tavoliere and, with lesser evidence, in Matera, eastern Sicily and Tyrrhenian Calabria, the latter belonging to the culture of Stentinello(➔ # 10132;), of the 6th-5th millennium BC

A similar compactness of occupation suggests organized social structures, with lively forms of exchange. The collective commitment required by agricultural work is confirmed by the onerous work necessary to establish these villages: in the Tavoliere, in fact, deep ditches, sometimes in double or triple boundaries, surround the village as a residential nucleus; inside, smaller enclosures perhaps indicate a demarcation at the family level. The plurality of ceramic styles in the Tavoliere has led to the hypothesis of a series of chronologically successive facies, but the great homogeneity in the economic system, in the location and in the structure of the villages and in some cases their modular distribution suggest rather that the ceramic varieties (with decoration imprinted, imprinted evolved, painted with red bands etc.

The numerically significant presence of pottery in Neolithic contexts and the variability of forms and decorative motifs make it the basic tool for the definition of cultural facies. From this point of view, the impressive stratigraphy found in Lipari(➔ # 10132;), in the Aeolian Islands, for a long time constituted a crucial chronological framework in the evaluation of the Italian Neolithic facies.

Italy in Neolithic Ages 1

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