Israel Geography and Climate

Israel stretches in a narrow strip along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. This is a small country, but travelers from all over the world flock here. Israel is the only state whose history is described in the Bible – Jesus Christ and the Prophet Muhammad were born and ascended to heaven here. The country is filled with shrines of three religions – Islam, Christianity and Judaism, to which thousands of pilgrims go every year. Israel offers tourists a huge number of historical sights, the flavor of oriental life, mild climate, healing properties of the Dead Sea waters, exhausting deserts and oases filled with greenery, as well as excellent opportunities for a beach holiday.

In Israel, it is best to relax from October to April, when it is not too hot. The swimming season in the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Kinneret lasts from early April to late October, and you can swim in the Red and Dead Seas all year round.

The official languages of Israel are Hebrew and Arabic. English is widely used in tourist areas, many people know Russian.

Geography in Israel

According to top-engineering-schools, the country is located in southwestern Asia off the southeastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It is a narrow strip of land (at its widest point – 135 km), stretching from north to south for 470 km and covering an area of 27,800 square meters. km. In the north , Israel borders on Lebanon, in the northeast – on Syria, in the east – on Jordan, in the southwest – on Egypt. The Seaside Plain is located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, and a little to the east lie hills and highlands, reaching a height of 1000 m. The highest point of the country – Mount Hermon (2224 m) – is located in its northern part on the Golan Heights. In the southeast of the country, in the rift valley, there is the lowest point on the planet – the Dead Sea (403 m below sea level). Southern half of Israel occupies the Negev plateau with the desert of the same name. In addition to the Mediterranean Sea, Israel is washed by the waters of the Red Sea from the south. The country’s largest river, the Jordan, flows from north to south through the Sea of ​​Galilee (Lake Kinneret), the largest reservoir of fresh water in Israel, and empties into the Dead Sea.

Climate in Israel

The climate in the country is subtropical. The northern regions and the Mediterranean coast have a subtropical Mediterranean climate type with cool, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. The most comfortable conditions are observed in the area of Jerusalem. The hottest month is August – daytime temperatures reach +29 degrees, while at night there is about 20 degrees of heat. Precipitation in the summer is almost non-existent. The greatest amount of precipitation is observed in winter, the rainiest month is January (133 mm). In just a year, up to 1000 mm of precipitation falls here. In winter, in elevated areas, the air temperature drops below 0 degrees, and Mount Hermon is covered with snow from December to March. In the south of Israel, in summer, the air temperature in the daytime rises to +40 degrees, at night it is also quite hot – about 26 degrees Celsius. In winter, the air warms up to +21..+23 degrees, at night it cools down to +10..+12 degrees. The driest part of Israel is the Negev desert, where the average annual rainfall is only 20 mm.

The water temperature of the Dead Sea ranges from +19 degrees in February to +31 degrees in August, the Mediterranean Sea – from +18 to +28 degrees, the Red Sea – from +22 to +27 degrees.

Best time to visit:
In Israel, the best time to visit is from October to April, when it’s not too hot. The swimming season in the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Kinneret lasts from early April to late October, and you can swim in the Red and Dead Seas all year round.

History in Israel

The history of these territories is closely connected with the development of trade between the two most ancient civilizations: Mesopotamia and Egypt. Around the caravan trade route, city-states arose, independent at certain periods of their history, but more often subordinate to either Egypt or Mesopotamia. The first mention of these lands, left by the Egyptians as monuments of victories in wars, dates back to 3000 BC. Much of the history of Canaan in the second millennium BC is recorded in the Old Testament. The development of a separate state began in 1030 BC, when the first king of Israel, Saul, was appointed by the prophet Samuel. King David, the second in a row, but the first in importance, through numerous military campaigns created a powerful state with its capital in Jerusalem. The first Temple in Jerusalem was built by his son and successor, King Solomon. In 722 – 586 BC. this territory was subjected to constant attacks from the Assyrians, Egyptians, Babylonians. In 586 B.C. The Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem, destroyed the first Temple and took the local people into slavery. In 537-516 BC. Persian king Cyrus allows the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple. The Second Temple stood until 70 AD, when it was destroyed by the Romans after the suppression of the uprising, and in 132 AD. The state was renamed Palestine. In 636, Palestine was conquered by the Arabs, later it belonged to the Mamluks, the Ottoman Empire, and the domination of Muslims continued for about 10 centuries. At the end of the 19th century, such a movement as Zionism began to develop, the purpose of which was to return the historical homeland to the Jews. Former exiles gradually began to return to Palestine. They became new settlers, mastered abandoned and depleted lands, laid the foundation for a new state. However, the authorities set a limit on the purchase of land, and new construction was allowed only with a special permit. After the First World War, the British army captured Jerusalem and already in July 1922, the League of Nations gave Great Britain a mandate to rule Palestine. This mandate for the first time recognized the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine and stipulated the possibility of creating a Jewish national home. Putting these ideas into practice, it turned out that Zionism and Arab nationalism could not coexist – numerous terrorist attacks and the oppression of Jews disturbed the peace in this region. Realizing the impossibility of a compromise, in 1937 Britain proposed to divide the country into two states, Jewish and Arab, however, the Arabs were strongly opposed to any partition plan. In 1948, the State of Israel was established, but the confrontation between these peoples continues to this day.

Israel Geography