Iran Geography and Climate

Iran is located in the Middle East. Until 1935 it was known as Persia. The main attraction of the country is its historical and cultural heritage. One of the most ancient cities of the planet, the most important shrines of Zoroastrianism and Islam, and world cultural centers are located here. In addition, the country has natural attractions. The Elburs Mountains located in the northern part of Iran have opportunities for skiing, and on the island of Kish in the Persian Gulf, vacationers are offered more than fifty hotels, numerous sports complexes and shopping centers, sandy beaches of white coral sand and coral reefs surrounding the coast of the island with a wide variety of sea inhabitants.

The most comfortable seasons for traveling in Iran are the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In the periods from late April to early June and from late September to early November, the probability of precipitation is the least, and in the daytime there is no sweltering heat. It is best to relax on the beaches of Kish Island from November to March, when the weather is comfortable. The ski season in Iran lasts from late November to late April.

The official language of Iran is Persian, or, as the locals call it, Farsi. It belongs to the Iranian group of the Indo-European family of languages. Due to the fact that many Azerbaijanis live in the country, the Azerbaijani language is widely spoken. Also in Iran you can hear many different Iranian languages and dialects. Hotel staff and airport employees can communicate in English.

Geography in Iran

According to top-engineering-schools, Iran is located in the southwestern part of Asia. The area of the country is 1648 thousand square meters. km. In the northwest, the state borders with Azerbaijan, Armenia and Turkey, in the west – with Iraq, in the east – with Afghanistan and Pakistan, in the northeast – with Turkmenistan. From the north, Iran is washed by the Caspian Sea, from the south – by the Persian and Oman gulfs. Iran is a mountainous country. Its western part is occupied by the Zagros Mountains, the maximum heights of which reach 4000 m. The coast of the Caspian Sea in the north of the country is bordered by the Elburs Mountains. This is the highest point in Iran – extinct volcano Damavend (5610 m). Between the Zagros and Elburs mountains there is a vast Iranian plateau with average heights of about 1200 m. In the eastern part of the plateau there are the deserts of Deshte-Kevir and Deshte-Lut. From the northeast, the Iranian Plateau is bounded by the East Iranian Mountains, and from the south by the Makran Mountains. The plains stretch in the north of the country along the coast of the Caspian Sea, in the southwest – along the coast of the Persian Gulf and in the southeast – along the coast of the Gulf of Oman.

The longest river in Iran is Karun (890 km). It originates in the Zagros Mountains and flows into the Persian Gulf. Also in the Zagros, such large rivers as the Karkhe, Dez and Zayande originate. In the north of the country, small rapids flow, which originate in Elburz and flow into the Caspian Sea. In the central part In Iran, rivers appear only when snow melts in the mountains, and in the rest of the year their channels dry up. In the northwestern part of Iran, the largest lake in the country is located – the salt lake Urmia with an area of ​​4868 square meters. km.

Administratively, Iran is divided into 30 regions (halt).

Climate in Iran

Iran has a tropical desert type of climate. Only in the northern part of the country on the plains along the coast of the Caspian Sea is dominated by a subtropical continental climate type.

On the coast of the Caspian Sea in winter in the daytime, the air warms up to +12..+14 degrees, and at night it cools down to +4..+6 degrees. During the summer time during the day the air temperature reaches +30..+32 degrees, at night – 22..24 degrees of heat.

In the mountainous regions of Iran, the climate depends on the altitude of the area. In the northern (Elburs) and northwestern (Iranian Azerbaijan and northern Zagros) parts of the country at altitudes from 1500 to 2000 m in January, night temperatures can reach -10 degrees, daytime temperatures – 2..4 degrees of heat. During the summer months in these regions, the air cools down to +15..+17 degrees at night, and warms up to +33..+35 degrees during the day. At the southern foothills of the Zagros in Tehran, 7..9 degrees of heat is observed during the daytime in winter, 0..-2 degrees at night, and in summer the corresponding figures are +37 and +24 degrees. In the southern part of the Zagros Mountains and in the mountainous regions of the eastern part of the country, in winter during the daytime, the air warms up to +10..+12 degrees, and at night it cools down to 0..-2 degrees, in summer during the day the air temperature reaches +36..+38 degrees, at night – 20..22 degrees of heat.

In the central regions of Iran on the deserted Iranian plateau in winter in the daytime the air temperature reaches +14..+16 degrees, and at night – 2..4 degrees of heat. In summer, during the day, the air here can warm up to +40 degrees and above, and at night it cools down to +27 degrees.

On the coasts of the Persian and Oman Gulfs, winters are mild and summers are hot and humid. In winter, daytime air temperatures reach +20..+22 degrees, and at night – 10..12 degrees of heat. In summer, during the day on the coasts, the air warms up to +40 degrees, and at night it cools down to +30 degrees.

Precipitation in Iran falls mainly in the period from November to April, and the monthly norm of precipitation in the summer period (June-September) most often does not exceed 10 mm. In the mountainous regions of the western and northern parts of the country, on the windward western slopes and on the coast of the Caspian Sea, up to 1700 mm of precipitation falls annually. The leeward eastern slopes of the mountains receive about 400 mm of precipitation per year. In the central arid regions of Iran and in the east of the country, the annual rainfall ranges from 100 to 300 mm. On the coasts of the Persian and Oman Gulfs, about 600 mm of precipitation falls annually.

Best time to visit:
The most comfortable seasons for traveling in Iran are the transitional seasons (spring and autumn). In the periods from late April to early June and from late September to early November, the probability of precipitation is the least, and in the daytime there is no sweltering heat. It is best to relax on the beaches of Kish Island from November to March, when the weather is comfortable. The ski season in Iran lasts from late November to late April.

Iran Geography

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