Indonesia Geography and Climate

Indonesia is one of the most popular tourist destinations, because you can relax here all year round. Each island of the archipelago is unique in its own way, but almost everywhere you are amazed by the most beautiful mountain landscapes, smoking volcanoes, tropical rainforests with lush vegetation and diverse wildlife, and, of course, sandy beaches and always warm water. The history of this region has its roots far into the past – on some islands, the most ancient tribes have survived that were not affected by technological progress, and the temples and numerous museums of Indonesia keep priceless monuments of the past.

On the archipelago, favorable conditions for recreation are observed throughout the year, however, the main seasons are in December-January and July-September. The best time for surfing is from September to March.

The official language of Indonesia is “Bahasa Indonesia” or simply Indonesian, which was formed on the basis of the Malay language. More than 700 dialects are used in different parts of the archipelago. English is widely spoken in the resorts.

Geography in Indonesia

According to top-engineering-schools, Indonesia is located in Southeast Asia. The archipelago consists of 5 main islands (Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, part of the island of New Guinea and Java) and many smaller islands scattered between Asia and Australia. There are more than 18,000 of them and only 6,000 of them are inhabited. The total area of the archipelago is 1904.5 thousand square meters. km., it is the largest island state. The region belongs to the Pacific Ring of Fire – out of 500 volcanoes located here, about 200 are active. The most famous volcanoes are Krakatoa in the Sunda Strait and Tambora on the island of Sumbawa. In 1883, as a result of the eruption of the Krakatoa volcano, an entire island was destroyed and tens of thousands of people died. Now in its place is the island of Anak Krakatoa (son of Krakatoa). The eruption of Mount Tambor in 1815 is considered the most powerful on Earth in the last 500 years.

From north Indonesia it is washed by the South China Sea, in the south and west – by the Indian Ocean, from the east – by the Pacific Ocean. The relief of the main islands is mostly mountainous, while the coastal areas are occupied by plains. In the west of the island of Sumatra, the Barisan Mountains are located, the highest point of which is the Kerinchi volcano (3800 m), while the eastern part is a swampy plain, where the largest tropical swamp in the world is located. Along the entire island of Java there are numerous volcanoes, the highest is Semeru (3676 m). The island of Kalimantan is flat on the outskirts, and ancient mountains are located in the center, with elevations up to 4000 m, in the south there is a swampy lowland. The island of Sulawesi is dominated by young mountains with steep slopes. On the island of New Guinea is the highest point in the country – Mount Jaya (5040 m). Lombok and Agun (3148 m) – on the island of Bali.

There are many rivers in Indonesia that are full of water throughout the year. On the island of Sumatra, the rivers Hari (800 km), Musi, Kampar, Rokan and Siak flow, on the island of Kalimantan – Kapuas (1040 km), Mahakam, Martapura and Barito. Due to sufficient moisture in the country there are a large number of lakes and marshes. The largest lake is located in the north of the island of Sumatra – Lake Toba, with an area of 1775 square meters. km.

Climate in Indonesia

In Indonesia, equatorial and subequatorial maritime climates are distinguished. On the southern and eastern islands in a year, in a subequatorial climate, two seasons are distinguished: rainy (from November to February) and dry (from March to October). The rainy season is characterized by short morning or night thunderstorms. This part of the archipelago is the hottest: on the island of Bali, the daytime temperature in March can reach +34 degrees, in July it stays at +30 degrees, at night hours throughout the year – not lower than +23 degrees.

It is worth noting that Indonesia is quite humid: during the rainy season, relative humidity reaches 90%, and the rest of the year – 80%. In general, about 3000 mm of precipitation falls here annually, and most of all – in the foothills. In the south of the island of Sulawesi, more than 700 mm of precipitation is recorded in January, while in August – only 15 mm. On the more northern islands, precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with about 200-300 mm falling monthly. In the flat areas of these islands, the air warms up to +28.. +30 degrees all year round during the daytime, in the mountains it is a little cooler – about +20 degrees, and frosts sometimes occur here at night. Coastal waters in all areas have a temperature of at least +26 degrees.

Best time to visit:
On the archipelago, favorable conditions for recreation are observed throughout the year, however, the main seasons are in December-January and July-September. The best time for surfing is from September to March.

Indonesia Geography