India Geography and Climate

India is a country of rich culture and history. While traveling in India, you can be transported to a completely different world of the East. And excellent beaches with a high level of service and the most beautiful sea provide an excellent opportunity to relax.

The best time to visit India is after the monsoon season. The cool season lasts from October to March, this time is considered the tourist season. And the best months for traveling in India are November and December.

In summer, from April to June, when there is quite a strong heat and dryness, it is humid along the coasts.

The official languages in India are English and Hindi, as well as 17 regional languages in different states. Among other languages, the most common are Bengali, Telugu, Tamil and some others.

Geography in India

According to top-engineering-schools, India is located in southern Asia on the Hindustan Peninsula between the headwaters of the rivers of the Indus system in the Punjab in the west and the river system of the Ganges in the East. In the north, the country borders with China, Bhutan and Nepal, in the northwest – with Pakistan, in the east – with Myanmar and the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. In the east, India is washed by the Bay of Bengal, in the west – by the Arabian Sea, in the south – by the Indian Ocean. The length of India from north to south is about 3220 km, and from east to west – 2930 km. The land border of India is 15200 km, and the sea – 6083 km. Its area is 3287.3 thousand sq. km.

The natural conditions of India are very diverse. In general, 3 regions can be distinguished on its territory.

1) The Himalayas, located in northern India. In translation, the name Himalayas means “abode of snows.” Here is the highest peak in the world – Mount Chomolungma (Everest), which rose to 8848 m above sea level. But her neighbors are not inferior to her older sister, the height of 5 – 6 thousand meters is quite common in these arrays. The Himalayas stretched from east to west (from the Brahmaputra river to the Indus river) for 2500 km with a width of 150 to 400 km. The Himalayas consist of three main mountain ranges: the Sivalik mountains in the south (altitudes 800-1200 m), then the Lesser Himalayas (2500-3000 m) and the Greater Himalayas (5500-6000 m).

2) The Deccan Plateau on the Hindustan Peninsula with adjacent coastal lowlands. The average height is 300 – 900 m. The Deccan is an arid, hilly plateau, bounded by the Western (higher) and Eastern Ghats mountains from the west and east. The Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri rivers flow through the Dekan plateau in the direction from West to East, which become very shallow in winter. It is interesting that, according to modern concepts, the Deccan Plateau was formed tens of millions of years ago as a result of the “swelling” of the earth’s surface from the impact of an asteroid from the opposite side of the globe in the Gulf of Mexico (this catastrophe was probably the cause of the extinction of the dinosaurs).

3) Indo-Gangetic Plain, which occupies the central and eastern part of India, its area is 319 thousand sq. km. Up to 250 million people live on the territory of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. This vast area, stretched parallel to the Himalayan ranges.

The main rivers in India are the Ganges (2510 km), Brahmaputra (2900 km), Indus (2879 km). They are very high water and are used for navigation. A characteristic phenomenon for the northern territories of the country are floods during the melting of glaciers.

Climate in India

Almost the entire territory of India is located in the subequatorial zone. The main feature is the tropical monsoons. The rains in India are brought by the summer monsoon penetrating from the Indian Ocean, which intensifies in early June on the west coast and around mid-June on the east coast – in Bengal. When passing over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, the monsoons are saturated with moisture and move over India in a northwesterly direction. Rising over the Western Ghats and the mountains of Assam, monsoons moving at 16-24 km/h bring heavy rainfall. Thunderstorms, especially strong in June, literally fall on the slopes of the mountains, but later their frequency and strength weaken, and in the period from late September to mid-October, showers generally stop. From November to March, the dry northeast monsoon blows from the land.

Based on data on thermal regime, precipitation and winds, the calendar year in India can be divided into three main climatic seasons. In November – February, when the northeast monsoon prevails, it is cool, sunny and dry. In March, the temperature gradually rises. The hot dry season lasts from late March to June. Towards the end of June the humidity rises, and the weather in the great plains of India becomes unbearably hot and rainy. From July to mid-September, when the summer monsoon blows, the weather is humid and hot. The heat subsides a little when the sky is completely covered with clouds and heavy rains are pouring, but in general, south-westerly winds are combined with high temperatures. October is a transitional time, the air humidity is high due to evaporation from the surface of the fields, but the rains stop.

In India, which occupies a large area and is characterized by significant differences in elevation and different distances from the ocean, contrasts in temperature and precipitation are pronounced. So, in the Thar Desert, the annual amount of precipitation does not exceed 100 mm, and at Cherrapunji station, located in the Khasi mountains, up to 10,770 mm falls per year. This is one of the wettest places on Earth.

The monsoon climate is most pronounced on the coast of the Arabian Sea. During the coldest period (December to February), the average minimum air temperature is +19…+21, the average maximum is +28…+30 degrees. During the same period, the least amount of precipitation falls (60-70 mm per month). The hottest time is from May to June, when the average minimum temperature is +25…+27, the average maximum is +30…+33 degrees. But even such high temperatures are tolerated quite easily, since the air is dry, relative humidity, even in the morning hours, does not exceed 60%. Gusts of wind raise clouds of dust, during this period the horizon is often painted in a dirty yellow color. The onset of the monsoon in June is accompanied by an increase in wind and an increase in cloud cover. The period lasts until September inclusive. During this period, during most days of the month, there are frequent and light rains. The monthly amount of precipitation in the rainiest month – July, exceeds 600 mm. Cloudy weather helps to lower the temperature by 2-3 degrees.

On the east coast of the country (the coast of the Bay of Bengal), the monsoon character is less pronounced: the amount of precipitation decreases, and the daily temperature fluctuations increase. In a relatively cold period (December to February), the average minimum air temperature is +12…+15, the average maximum is +26…+29 degrees. During the same period, the least amount of precipitation falls (63-70 mm per month). The hottest time is from May to June, when the average minimum temperature is +24…+26, the average maximum is +33…+35 degrees. The heat is more difficult to bear, since the relative humidity of the air during this period increases to 70-80%. During the monsoon season (May to September), the monthly rainfall exceeds 100 mm, and in the rainiest month, July, it exceeds 300 mm.

An even more moderate climate is in the north of the country, on the Indo-Gangetic plain. During the coolest period (December to February), the average minimum air temperature is +6…+10, and on some days it can drop to slightly negative values, the average maximum is +21…+23 degrees. The hottest time is from May to June, when the average minimum temperature is +26… +28, the average maximum is about +40 degrees. The relative humidity of the air at this time is low (not higher than 45%). The minimum amount of precipitation is observed in November and December (no more than 3 mm per month). Little rain in April and May (about 8 mm). The rainy season starts in July and lasts through September. In the wettest month – July – up to 230 mm of precipitation falls.

In the mountains of the Himalayas, the climate depends on the height above sea level. So at altitudes from 1500 to 2300 meters, in the period from December to February, the average minimum temperature is already negative (from 0 to -3), and the average maximum is +4… +8. The hottest time of the year lasts from June to August: the average minimum temperature is +14…+18, the average maximum temperature is +29…+30. The summer monsoon does not appear here. The least amount of precipitation falls from September to November (25-35 mm per month), the most in March (about 100 mm).

Best time to visit:
The most favorable time to visit India is after the monsoon season. The cool season lasts from October to March, this time is considered the tourist season. And the best months for traveling in India are November and December.

In summer, from April to June, when there is quite a strong heat and dryness, it is humid along the coasts.

India Geography

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