Estonia Geography and Climate

Estonia is located in the very north of Eastern Europe on the coast of the Baltic Sea. The nature of the region is very beautiful, in the west of the country pine forests adjoin sandy beaches, and in the southeast there is a picturesque region with forested hills and lakes. There are several world-famous resorts in Estonia that offer not only beach holidays, but also wellness procedures carried out with the help of therapeutic mud. Any tourist will be amazed by the many historical sights of the country, preserved from the time of the German knights. Numerous castles and manors will help you plunge into the history of this region.

Traveling around the country is best from May to September, the beach season lasts from early June to late August.

The state language is Estonian, it belongs to the Finno-Ugric group of languages; Russian, Finnish, English and German are widely spoken in everyday life.

Geography in Estonia

According to top-engineering-schools, Estonia is located in the north-east of Europe on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland. The area of the country is 45,227 sq. km. In the south it borders on Latvia, in the east – on Russia. The nature of the relief in most of Estonia is flat. The most elevated parts of the territory are located in the southern part of Estonia – the Otepää Upland (up to 217 m high), the Haanja Upland (318 m high) and the Sakala Upland (up to 145 m high). The highest point in the country is Suur Munamägi Hill – 318 meters above sea level. The longest river in Estonia is Pärnu. It has a length of 144 km and flows into the Gulf of Riga of the Baltic Sea, and the most abundant river is the Narva. There are more than 1000 moraine lakes here.

The country’s largest lake is Lake Peipus and it forms a natural and historical border with Russia. Its area is 3555 sq. km. The largest inland body of water in Estonia is Lake Võrtsjärv, with an area of 266 sq. km. The country also owns more than 1,500 islands, the largest of which are Saaremaa, Hiiumaa, Muhu, Vormen, Naisaar, Aegna, Prangli, Kihnu, Ruhnu, Abruka and Vilsandi.

Climate in Estonia

On the western coast of Estonia, the climate is milder, as the influence of the Baltic is stronger. The coldest month of the year is January, the air temperature at this time during the daytime does not exceed -2 degrees, and at night it drops to -8. In July, during the day, the air warms up to +22 degrees, at night it is about 14 degrees of heat.

In the south-east of the country, the climate is more continental, but the air temperatures do not differ much from the temperatures of the western coast, in winter they are 2-3 degrees lower, and in summer – 2-3 degrees higher. The greatest amount of precipitation falls at the end of summer (July-August). In total, up to 600 mm of precipitation falls annually, and in the southeast – up to 700 mm due to the fact that moist air masses linger over the local hills.

Best time to visit:
Traveling around the country is best from May to September, the beach season lasts from early June to late August.


The capital of Estonia – Tallinn – consists of Vyshgorod, which is located on the Toompea hill, and the Lower City. Old houses with red tiled roofs, winding and narrow streets, the remains of the city walls, swept roofs with weather vanes give a special flavor to the city.

The historical center of Tallinn – Town Hall Square. Since ancient times, it has been used as a market square and was a gathering place for citizens. Now colorful fairs are held here and open-air concerts are held. The square is decorated with the City Hall, it was first mentioned in chronicles in 1322. This is one of the best preserved medieval town halls in Europe.

The oldest church in Tallinn is the Dome Cathedral. It was built in 1219, but then it was repeatedly reconstructed. The modern Dome Cathedral is a mixture of various architectural styles. Inside, gravestones of the 13th-18th centuries, as well as numerous noble coats of arms and epitaphs dedicated to noble people and related to the 12th-20th centuries, have been preserved. Tallinn is home to the tallest building in medieval Europe – the gothic Oleviste Church. At the beginning of the 16th century, the height of Oleviste reached 159 m, then it was the tallest building in the world. Now you can climb to the upper levels of the church, from where a beautiful view of Tallinn opens up. The era of the rule of the Knights of the Teutonic Order left behind a huge number of castles throughout Estonia. AT

Tallinn is worth a look at Toompea Castle, built in the 13-14 centuries on the slopes of the hill of the same name, now the Parliament of the Republic of Estonia is located here.

Among other sights of the city, one can single out the complex of buildings of the Great Guild, the House of the Brotherhood of the Blackheads, the “staircase street” Lühike Yalg (“Short Leg”), the monument to the sailors of the battleship “Mermaid” on the shores of the Gulf of Finland, the street of artisans Katarina, the Viru gates on the street of the same name with many interesting shops, the Niguliste church, Pyhavaimu with a magnificent clock and a “hanging pulpit”, the Alexander Nevsky church and the Church of the Kazan Mother of God, and the Kadriorg palace and park complex built by Peter I for his wife with the Museum of Peter the Great.

There are many museums in Tallinn – the Museum of Applied Arts, the Workers’ Cellar, the Maritime Museum, the Museum of Nature, the Rocca al Mare Open Air Museum, the Tallinn City Museum, the State Historical Museum and the Estonian Art Museum near Toomkirk.

City beach Pirit, Tallinn Zoo, amusement parks and the picturesque lake Ülemiste are perfect for a relaxing family holiday.

The ancient city of Narva is located 210 km east of Tallinn. Of greatest interest are the medieval buildings of Narva – Narva Castle, city fortifications of the 14th-16th centuries, the Baroque City Hall, the Orthodox Resurrection Cathedral and the complex of buildings of the famous Krenholm manufactory. Narva Castle is located on the banks of the river of the same name. Hermann Castle (as it is also called) was founded by the Danes, who controlled the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland in the 13th century. Since then, the fortress has been repeatedly completed and rebuilt, and now it is equipped with an interesting historical museum.

In southern Estonia is the main cultural center of the country – the city of Tartu . The University of Tartu – one of the oldest in Europe, was founded in 1632 by order of the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus. The city has many historical sights – the ruins of the cathedral Peter and Paul, the powder magazine at the foot of the Toomemägi hill, the original bridges of Angels and Devils, the Town Hall building, the Jaani Church and the Tartu Observatory.

The status of the cultural capital of Estonia is confirmed by numerous museums – the Museum of the History of the University of Tartu, the Estonian Sports Museum, the Museum of Geology, the Museum of Zoology, the Museum of Art, the Art Museum, the Ethnographic Museum, the Museum of the City’s History, the O. Luts House Museum and the Children’s Museum.

Estonia Geography