State structure and political system of El Salvador
El Salvador is a democratic state with a republican form of presidential government. The Constitution of 1983, as amended in 1991, is in force. Administrative division is 14 departments: Auchapan, Cabañas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlán, La Libertad, Morazan, La Paz, San Miguel, San Salvador, San Vicente, Santa Ana, Sonsonate, La Unión, Usulutan. Major cities: San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Miguel.
The president and vice president are elected for 5 years, re-election of the president is not allowed. The age limit of the head of state and vice president is at least 30 years. The principles of public administration provide for the separation of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government. According to the constitutional amendments of 1991, the highest legislative body is the unicameral Legislative Assembly, consisting of 84 deputies elected for 3 years (20 – according to the proportional representation system, 64 – according to multi-party lists). The executive power is headed by the president and the cabinet of ministers formed by him. The judiciary is represented by the Supreme Court, which consists of 14 judges elected by parliament.
Head of state – President Antonio Elias Saka (elected March 21, 2004, took office June 1, 2004), leader of the LRC party; Vice President – Ana Vilma de Escobar. The head of the leadership of the Legislative Assembly is Ciro Cruz Cepeda Peña. Executive power in the departments is exercised by governors, at the municipal level – by mayors (alcaldes) and municipal councils.
El Salvador has a multi-party system that developed in the 1980s. and changed after the end of the armed conflict. Since 1992, the LRC party has been in power, pursuing a policy of economic liberalization and post-war reconstruction. Until 2003, with the support of the faction of the right-wing National Reconciliation Party (PNP), she had a majority in the Legislative Assembly. The situation changed after the parliamentary elections on March 16, 2003, as a result of which the LRC lost the championship to the FMLN. The LRC faction has 27 deputies, and the FMLN has 31. The PPP, which won 16 mandates, entered into an alliance with the FMLN. For the first time in the post-war history of El Salvador, representatives of the ruling party were not elected to leadership positions in parliament. The positions of the CDA are significantly weakened (5 seats), the Social Democrats from the United Democratic Center also have 5 seats.
Among the business organizations, the most influential are the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the National Association of Private Enterprise, the Salvadoran Association of Industrialists, the El Salvador Exporters Corporation and the Salvadoran Coffee Council. Civil society organizations are in their infancy. The most active are trade unions of transport workers, doctors and teachers, associations of peasants, women’s and human rights organizations.
The internal policy of the government is aimed at post-war reconstruction, the elimination of the consequences of natural disasters (1998 hurricane Mitch and the 2001 earthquake), which left hundreds of thousands of residents homeless, and curbing crime (140 crimes per 100 thousand inhabitants). Particular attention is paid to the development of science and technology, the modernization of the infrastructure necessary for technological development and the creation of technology parks.
Foreign policy is aimed at strengthening ties with the United States, Mexico and Central American countries. On March 31, 2000, an agreement was concluded with the United States on the deployment of a regional center for combating drug trafficking in El Salvador. The agreement was not ratified by the parliament due to the position of the FMLN.
The armed forces of El Salvador have 3 types of troops – land, aviation and navy. As a result of the implementation of the peace agreements, the number of military personnel was reduced to 15 thousand people, and military spending was reduced to 0.7% of GDP. El Salvador has 3 military zones and 12 districts, 7 air force bases and 4 navy bases.
El Salvador has had diplomatic relations with Russia since June 1992.
Science and culture of Ecuador
Primary school – 6 years old (from 6 years old). Secondary school – 6 years (2 levels of 3 years). Higher education – 40 universities and 7 polytechnic schools, music and art schools. According to andyeducation, major universities include Central (founded in 1769), Pontifical Catholic in Quito, universities of Guayaquil, Cuenca.
Scientific centers are mainly associated with universities – Central, Guayaquil, etc. There are also state research institutes: the Astronomical Observatory in Quito, the Ecuadorian Institute of Mining, the Military Institute of Geography, etc. A number of research institutes in the private sector (laboratories of firms) or have an independent status: the Academy of Medical Sciences, the Ecuadorian Institute of Political Economy, etc. The biostation them. C. Darwin on the Galapagos Islands. Science is financed by the state, private foundations and firms, and international organizations.
National Library. E. Espejo in Quito (founded in 1792, about 150 thousand volumes).
Literature: E. Espejo (“Letters from Riobamba”, 1787); J. de Velasco (“History of the Kingdom of Kitu”, 1789); H.H. Olmedo (ode “Victory at Junin”, 1825); H. L. Mera (novel “Kumanda”, 1879); J. Montalvo (publicism, 1860-80s); L.A. Martinez (the novel “To the Shore”, 1904); H.Ikasa (novel “Wasipungo”, 1934); H. Gallegos Lara (novel “Crosses on the Water”, 1946); poet J. Carrera Andrade (20th century).
Fine art in the pre-Hispanic era – small plastic (clay, gold), painted ceramics. Colonial era – religious painting and woodcarving (“school of Quito”). The Indian M. Chili (Kaspikara) is the author of wooden polychrome groups (18th century). O. Guayasamin (1919-99) – painting and graphics, monumental paintings and mosaics, sculpture. Contemporary art: F. Guerrero (sculpture), M. Restrepo (painting), etc.
In 1978, UNESCO declared Quito a cultural heritage of mankind.