Education in Vietnam
Vietnam – education
Vietnam – education, The guidelines for 1990’s reforms in Vietnam establish investment in education as the most important precondition for economic development. The immediate goals are education for all and the eradication of illiteracy at 6.3% (1998).
The pre-school education for the 3-6-year-olds is voluntary. The five-year primary education for the 6-14-year-olds ends with a national test. approximately 80% continue in a four-year “middle school”, while only a few continue in three-year upper secondary education, including a large number of technical educations. Higher education takes place at over 100 higher education institutions.
OFFICIAL NAME: Công Hòa Xã Hôi Chu Nghia Viêt Nam
CAPITAL CITY: Hanoi
POPULATION: 85,800,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 331,114 km²
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): Vietnamese and other Monkhmer languages, Tibeto-Burmese languages, Chinese, French, other
RELIGION: Buddhists 67%, Christians 9% (especially Catholics), others el. no 24%
CURRENCY CODE: VND
ENGLISH NAME: Vietnam
POPULATION COMPOSITION: vietnamesere 87%, tày 2%, thái 2%, hoa 2%, khmer 1%, hmong 1%, andre 5%
GDP PER residents: $ 538 (2007)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 68 years, women 73 years (2007)
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.709
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 109
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .vn
Vietnam, (Vietnamese Viêt Nam ‘country to the south’), is a republic of South Asia. Most of the country is mountainous, many areas are impassable with only scattered populations, but the coastal and river plains are extremely densely populated and characterized by intensive rice cultivation developed over the centuries. The country was a French colony, and after nearly 30 years of war of liberation, in 1975 it was heavily destroyed. Since the 1990’s, Vietnam has experienced strong economic growth; a rapidly growing tourism is an important part of this development.
- AbbreviationFinder.org: Find two-letter abbreviation for each independent country and territory, such as VM which stands for Vietnam.
Vietnam – people
Vietnam – peoples, Vietnam officially has 54 nationalities including kinh (viet), who make up 87% of the population. In fact, the number of ethnic groups is somewhat larger. Kinh was formerly concentrated in the lowlands, while the mountains in the north and central highlands were inhabited by ethnic minorities, who were relatively independent. After 1975, there was an extensive influx of kinh into the minority areas. Other major populations in the lowlands are Chinese (Hoa) and Khmers (the two groups make up a total of about 1 million). In the northern, mountainous provinces, the largest ethnic groups are tày and tháiwith resp. 1.5 and 1.3 million. In 1945, the French colonial power used a part and rule policy and supported a particular clan, the Cam Lo clan in Lai Chau. Both tay, tai and other minorities like hmong (680,000) and dao (mien, 580,000) were divided between the colonial power and the Viet Minh and later between North and South Vietnam. In the southern part of the country there are approximately 120,000 cham, which was the core of the Champariget; most are Muslims. In the highlands live 12 major ethnic groups; jarai og êdê(290,000 and 250,000, respectively) are known for their matrilineal organization, in which the oldest women have great influence. Since 1990, a Protestant revival movement has spread among the minorities, and for example the Christian êdê are waiting for Jesus’ return. The movement is banned and prosecuted by the authorities.
Vietnam – language
Vietnam – language, Official language is Vietnamese, spoken by approximately 85%. From colonial times, French has a strong position as the language used in external relations. Previously, the cultural language was Chinese. A large number of minority languages belonging to different language families are spoken: in the northern part of the country, e.g. Tibeto-Burmese languages, Hmong-Mien languages and Tai-Kadai languages. Austronesian languages. The most common are the mon-khmer languages with subgroups such as viet-muong, khmu, katuisk, north and south bahnarisk as well as khmer.
Vietnam – religion
Vietnam – religion, Over time, Vietnamese culture has incorporated several different forms of religion. Over half of the population is considered Buddhist. Mahayana Buddhism, introduced from China, left its mark in Vietnam from approximately 100-t. From China also came Confucianism and Taoism. Elements from these three forms of religion are part of the Vietnamese traditional religion, where ancestral worship plays an important role. Significant religious groups are the synagogue Cao-Dai (about 2 million followers), which emerged in the 1920’s, and the neo- Buddhist hoa-hao movement.(about 1.5 million followers), which in the 1930’s spread in the Mekong Delta. The Christian mission began its activity in Vietnam around 1500-t. Today (2001) is approximately 7% Christians, mainly Roman Catholics. Finally, animism is widespread among many tribesmen.
Vietnam – Constitution
Vietnam – constitution, Vietnam’s constitution is from 1992. The National Assembly is the country’s supreme authority and thus both the legislative, the executive and the judiciary; it consists of up to 450 members, who are elected by direct election for a five-year term. The National Assembly, which meets 30-45 days at a time three times a year, elects the president and vice-president as well as the prime minister and the other ministers. The President heads the Council of State, which can issue decrees when the National Assembly is not convened. The Communist Party is the only party allowed.
Vietnam – economy
Vietnam – economy, After the reunification in 1976, the government introduced the socialist model of society also in the southern part of the country. Vietnam became increasingly oriented towards the Soviet Union, which provided the country with considerable financial assistance, just as it was included in COMECON. From the mid-1980’s, support was made conditional on Vietnam implementing economic reforms; within the socialist framework became a reform program, doi moi, introduced in 1986. However, the results were poor, which in connection with the collapse of communism in Europe caused the government to accelerate the pace of reform. Since 1989, prices and trade have been liberalized, just as Vietnam has opened up to foreign investment. A number of state-owned enterprises have been transformed into joint-stock companies, but the socialist government has not implemented an actual privatization program.
Economic growth in 1992-97 was above 8% per year, but the international financial crisis of 1997-98 resulted in an economic downturn and the currency, dong, had to be written down by around 25%. Growth fell in 1998-99 to around 5%, but soon increased again and has since been around 7%. As a result, the proportion of poor people has been reduced from 58% in 1993 to 20% in 2004, but unemployment due to public redundancies and migration from poor rural areas is a major problem, and the level of inflation (8% in 2005) dictates caution in increasing the budget deficit. An agreement with the International Monetary Fundin 1993 on an economic stabilization program and the abolition in 1994 of the US economic blockade of the country opened the door to debt restructuring agreements and easier access to international capital markets; in 1997, the commercial creditors wrote off half of Vietnam’s debt.
Through its participation in ASEAN from 1995 and the Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation, APEC, from 1998, Vietnam has become increasingly integrated into global and, in particular, regional economic cooperation; the country was also acceded to the WTO in 2007. Vietnam’s trade deficit is offset by tourist revenues, aid and transfers from Vietnamese abroad. A bilateral trade agreement with the United States from 2001 has been of great importance.
Vietnam mainly exports to the United States, Japan and Australia and imports from China, Singapore, Taiwan and other countries in the region. Denmark’s exports to Vietnam in 2005 of DKK 419 million. DKK consisted mainly of machinery and food, while imports from there of 757 mill. DKK mainly consisted of shoes and clothes as well as furniture. Vietnam has a budget of 411 million. DKK in 2005 one of the main goals for Danish development assistance.
Vietnam – health conditions
Vietnam – health conditions, Infant mortality is approximately 35 ‰, and the mortality under five years approximately 50 ‰, which is lower than in most other countries with a similar economic development. Life expectancy is 68 years. The birth rate is only 20 ‰, and population growth is less than in many similar countries. Malnutrition is prevalent among children.
The health care system has expanded significantly since 1975, and many preventive health care programs are functioning well. Vaccination coverage is high and malaria and tuberculosis control programs are among the best functioning in developing countries. The incidence of AIDS is low but rising. Many health services are user-paid, which creates great social inequality. Check youremailverifier for Vietnam social condition facts.
Vietnam – military
Vietnam Military, The Armed Forces (2006) is 484,000. The army is at 412,000, the navy at 42,000 and the air force at 30,000. Conscript service is two to three years. The reserve is DKK 3-4 million.
The forces are equipped with a mixture of old and slightly newer Soviet- or Chinese-produced equipment. The army has 14 army corps headquarters, which can dispose of 3 armored infantry – and 58 infantry divisions as well as ten armored brigades. The fleet has 6 larger and 42 smaller combat units, 2 submarines, 15 demining vessels, approximately 36 landing craft and a navy of 27,000. The Air Force with the air defense forces has 221 fighter jets, 26 armed helicopters and a numerically very strong air defense artillery. The security forces include the 40,000 active in the border guard, and the more than 5 million that can be mobilized for the people’s militia.
Vietnam – mass media
Vietnam – mass media, Vietnam does not have freedom of the press, and although one can criticize the authorities for eg corruption, there is no real debate in the media. Vietnam is ranked No. 158 (out of 167), ie very low, on Journalists Without Borders’ worldwide index of press freedom (2005). More than 350 newspapers and magazines are published. The largest daily newspaper is the Communist Party newspaper Nhan Dan (The People), founded by Ho Chi Minhin 1946; it has a circulation of small 500,000 (2002), which is probably due to the fact that there is compulsory reading in the administration. Other major dailies are Quan Doi Nhan Dan (People’s Army) and Sai Gon Giai Phong (The Liberated Saigon) published by the South Vietnamese News Agency (VNA). The police newspaper, Cong An, which has bloody details about crimes and accidents, is very popular. The youth newspaper Tuoi Tre is the most popular newspaper in the early 2000’s. Radio VoV (Voice of Vietnam) has six channels and reaches 90% of the listeners. In addition, there are 61 provincial and city radio stations, 562 district and 6505 local radios, as well as a myriad of FM stations. VoV’s international channel broadcasts news and other material from Vietnam in 11 languages abroad. Vietnam’s Central Television has six national and 61 local television stations (2006). With the introduction of foreign cable television in the mid-1990’s, the Vietnamese were given a significantly better opportunity to stay informed. However, the authorities often block foreign electronic media with noise signals. The Internet is sought to be made available to as many Vietnamese as possible, for example through a free telephone connection. 13 mio. Vietnamese (about 15%) have access to the Internet (2006). Politically sensitive information is sharply controlled with firewalls at different levels, so it is not the free movement of information that the Vietnamese authorities want to promote with the Internet, but education etc.
Vietnam – visual arts and architecture
Vietnam – visual arts and architecture, Vietnamese art has received its strongest impulses from China and India; Chinese influence is seen especially in the northern part, and Indian influence in Central and South Vietnam. From the Dong Son culture (500-tfKr.-100-teKr.) In North Vietnam are known large bronze drums (boiler drums), whose ornamentation shows kinship with similar Chinese finds. In architecture, for example, temples with relief ornaments (after 600-700-t.) Have Indian models. The ancient imperial palaces of Huêbears a clear mark of Chinese building style. The Huong-tich Pagoda in the Mekong Delta is a beautiful example of a Buddhist edifice. The early painting was Chinese influenced, but in the 1900’s. many painters have sought inspiration in Western art. In the field of handicrafts, lacquerwork and ceramics in particular are of high quality.
Vietnam – literature
Vietnam – literature, Vietnam has a rich oral tradition, and folk songs and tales still occupy a prominent place in Vietnamese culture.
The written tradition was for centuries under the strong influence of China and neocongfusian thinking. The primary genre was poetry, and as a central part of the education, future mandarins learned to compose poems in highly stylized forms and often with a didactic purpose. An artistic climax was reached in the great epic poem The Tale of Kim, Van and Kieu by Nguyen Du.
As a result of the French conquest, Western-inspired style and themes broke through in the early 1930’s with tho moi (the new poetry), bringing the individual to the forefront for the first time in the history of Vietnamese literature. The same was the case in the new prose, where a series of socially realistic novels put traditional values up for debate.
The romantic and individualistic poetry had difficult conditions after 1945. During the wars, national literature flourished, but not least as a result of Maoist influence, the literary scene was approximately 1958-approx. 1986 dominated by socialist realism and didactic works.
In the late 1970’s, the first demands for a richer faceted and less stereotypical literature were heard, and after 1986, the changing political climate meant a breakthrough for many young and innovative writers, such as Bao Ninh (b. 1952) and Duong Thu Huong (b. 1947), and not least for the excellent stylist and refined ironist Nguyen Huy Thiep (b. 1950), who since 1987 both inside and outside Vietnam is the most talked about and famous of all Vietnamese writers. Many older authors’ works are republished and, like foreign authors, benefit from the great popular interest in literature.
Literature has great political attention, but there is no longer pre-censorship of literary works. The Writers’ Union plays a major role in the literary cycle and publishes a weekly magazine (Van Nghe ‘Culture and Art’), which since the 1950’s has been the first to print new poems and short stories.
Vietnam – music
Vietnam – music, With its various fifteen scales, the use of flageolet and gliding tones and a characteristic nasal singing style, traditional Vietnamese music forms a special part of Southeast Asian music. The style is the result of the direct land connection to China, while mountains have cut off the country from the rest of Southeast Asia. The large, Chinese-inspired court ensembles have almost disappeared, but the many smaller chamber ensembles still live on with their characteristic crisp sound. Among the country’s many different ethnic groups, there is a vibrant and richly varied folk music tradition. In addition, there is a wealth of modern western and western-inspired popular music, especially in the youth environments of the big cities.