Romania – education
From 1989 the educations, with EU support, reorganized in terms of content and structure with decentralization, humanization and democratization as objectives. National minorities, Hungarian and German, mother tongue instruction is offered.
The education system, which is public and free, includes a pre-school for 3-6-year-olds, which is applied for by 53% (1996). The eight-year compulsory schooling is fulfilled in a four-year primary school followed by a middle school of the same duration. This is followed by a three-year general upper secondary education or 1-2 years of vocational education, which is followed by a total of approximately 70% (1996).
There are 16 universities (1998), Universitatea Bucureşti, founded in 1694, as well as several other higher education institutions. After 1989, private higher education institutions were also established.
OFFICIAL NAME: Romania
CAPITAL CITY: Bucharest
POPULATION: 19,000,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 236,400 km²
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): Romanian, Hungarian, Romani, German, others
RELIGION: Romanian Orthodox 87%, Catholics 5%, Protestants 4%, Greek Orthodox 1%, Pentecostal Christians 1%, others 2%
CURRENCY CODE: ROL
ENGLISH NAME: Romania
POPULATION COMPOSITION: Romanians 90%, Hungarians 7%, Gypsies 2%, Germans, Ukrainians and others 1%
GDP PER residents: 2259 $ (2007)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 68 years, women 75 years (2007)
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.805
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 60
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .ro
Romania is a republic of Eastern Europe, united in 1859, was internationally recognized at the Berlin Congress in 1878 and gained its current borders after World War II. The country belongs geographically and culturally to both the Balkans and Central Europe. Romania was the only Eastern Bloc country to experience civil war-like conditions at the fall of communism in 1989. Its main political goal has been to join NATO and the EU as soon as possible; the first was successful in 2004, and accession to the EU took place per. 1.1.2007. The country is struggling with a poorly maintained energy sector and significant pollution problems. The country’s gross domestic product per. per capita is still well below the level of the poorest of the 2004 EU countries, Latvia.
- AbbreviationFinder.org: Find two-letter abbreviation for each independent country and territory, such as RO which stands for Romania.
Romania – language
Romanian is the official language and mother tongue of over 90% of the population. approximately 7% speak Hungarian, especially in Transylvania, where one also finds significant German-speaking minorities, which, however, have been significantly reduced since the 1980’s due to emigration to Germany.
In the northernmost provinces of Satu-Mare and Maramureş, Ukrainian and Russian are spoken by approximately 40,000 (2002). The gypsies speak Romani. In addition, Serbian and Turkish are spoken by smaller groups.
Romania – religion
The religious composition of the population follows to some extent ethnic divides. 86.7% (2002) feel attached to the Romanian Orthodox Church, which seceded from the Patriarchate of Constantinople in 1859 at the same time as the political liberation from the Ottomans; the church has since 1925 been headed by the patriarch of Bucharest. In addition, there are Catholics (4.7%) and Reformed (3.2%), especially among the Hungarians in Transylvania and the Germans in the Banat; the dwindling German minority in Transylvania, the Transylvania Saxons, are Lutherans; an unpainted church has been restored after 1989.
During socialism, the Catholic Church in particular was hit by persecution, and the United Church with its Rome loyalty was directly abolished. The Orthodox Church, on the other hand, achieved through a system-friendly attitude the maintenance of significant theological educational institutions, a functioning church life, and numerous monasteries as centers of pious life and religious culture.
Romania – Constitution
The Constitution of the Republic of Romania dates from 1991. Legislative power is vested in a two-chamber parliament, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, which is elected by direct universal suffrage for four years. The number of members of the chambers depends on the current population. Following the 1996 elections, the Chamber of Deputies consists of 328 directly elected members and 15 minority representatives, with each recognized national minority being entitled to at least one seat in the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate has 143 members. The executive has the president, who is elected by direct universal suffrage for four years. He appoints a prime minister. All citizens over the age of 18 have the right to vote in all elections. Parliament can be dissolved by the President if no government can obtain a parliamentary majority within 60 days. However, Parliament cannot be dissolved during the last six months of the President’s term. The president can only sit for two terms. He can be deposed by2/3 of members of parliament, if he has been guilty of high treason, and in case of serious constitutional breach, if both a majority of the parliament and a majority in a subsequent referendum vote in favor.
Romania – political parties
Romanian party politics since 1990 has been characterized by a large number of parties, internal power struggles and frequent splits, mergers and name changes. Returned emigrants who have wanted a judicial-political showdown with the past have not had much influence in Romanian politics.
Following the fall of Nicolae Ceauşescu and the fall of the Communist Party, free elections were held in May 1990, in which 82 parties ran for office, including three pre-World War II parties, the National Liberal Party, the Christian Democratic Peasants’ Party (PNTCD) and the Social Democrats. the coalition The Democratic Convention (CDR) under the leadership of the returned emigrant Campeanu from the National Liberals.
However, the victorious coalition became the Front for the Salvation of the Fatherland (FSN), led by ex-communist Ion Iliescu, who won an absolute majority in both houses of parliament, and Iliescu also won the 1990 presidential election.
In 1991, a new nationalist party, the Greater Romanian Party (PRM), was formed, in particular facing the country’s large Hungarian minority, which supported the CDR. That same year, Ion Iliescu fired his prime minister, Petre Roman, in favor of the independent Theodor Stolojan, who formed a government of the FSN and the National Liberal Party, which then resigned from the CDR.
Then in 1992 came the final breakup of the FSN, now led by Roman, as Iliescu broke out and formed his own party, the Democratic Front for the Salvation of the Fatherland (DFNR). The remnants of the CDR were now gathered under the leadership of the Peasants’ Party, and the coalition’s new presidential candidate became the rector of the University of Bucharest, Emil Constantinescu.
The remaining majority from the FSN called itself the Party for Social Democracy (PSDR) from 1993. A new government was based on a collaboration between the PSDR, the PRM, the Nationalist Party of Romanian National Unity (PUNR) and the Socialist Workers’ Party (PSM), a direct descendant of the Communist Party. This “brown-red coalition” of ex-communists and nationalists collapsed in 1996 under pressure from the United States and the European Union, as well as domestic strikes and student demonstrations.
In the 1996 general election, Ion Iliescu was beaten by Emil Constantinescu in the presidential election. The government leadership of the weak coalition government supported by the Hungarian minority party came to lie with the Christian-Democratic Peasants’ Party. However, several ministers withdrew from the government in 1997-98 in protest of its inability to deal with both the economic crisis and the necessary structural reforms, including privatization and the violent protests of miners against the closure of unprofitable mines. At the end of 1999, an internal power struggle in the Peasants’ Party led to the dissolution of the minority government.
Before the 2000 elections, the country was shaken by financial and corruption scandals, and the PDSR won big in the local elections. The parliamentary elections gave great progress to the newly formed electoral alliance Polul Democrat Social din România consisting of PDSR, the Social Democratic Party, the Humanist Party (PUR) as well as to the Greater Romanian Party; the other nationalist party, the PUNR, was unsuccessful in the election. The big loser of the election was the Peasants’ Party, which slipped completely. In the presidential election later this year, Iliescu won.
Following the 2000 elections, there were significant changes in the party system in Romania. According to the constitution, President Iliescu had to relinquish the leadership of his party, the PDSR, which then passed to the new Prime Minister Adrian Năstase. The PDSR merged in 2001 with the small pre-communist Social Democratic Party, PSDR, and took over its name to gain membership in the Socialist International.
That same year, Traian Băsescu took over the chairmanship of the Democratic Party (PD). Together with the National Liberal Party (PNL), the PD took over the leadership of the Democratic Convention. The two parties ran in an electoral alliance in 2004 under the new name Democratic Alliance for Justice and Truth. Following the Confederation’s great progress in the parliamentary elections, both the Hungarian Minority Party and the Humanist Party, which had so far supported the Social Democrats, switched sides and supported the formation of a center-right government resting on a majority outside the Social Democrats and the PRM.
In the parliamentary elections in 2004, the Peasants’ Party did not succeed in making a comeback despite the opposition’s victory; PNL went 30 seats to 64, the Democratic Party from 31 to 48. It was therefore natural that PNL got the post of prime minister. The center-right parties’ grip on power was consolidated when PD leader Traian Băsescu became president in 2004.
On 19 April 2007, the President was suspended by Parliament for one month, after which a referendum was held on 19 May 2007 on his possible removal. However, the president could not be ousted due to lack of majority therefore.
In the 2009 presidential election, Traian Băsescu was re-elected, but on July 6, 2012, he was again suspended, which the Constitutional Court upheld, after which a referendum on July 29 would decide whether Traian Băsescu should be brought before a Supreme Court. Meanwhile, power was temporarily handed over to Parliament Speaker Crin Antonescu.
However, the attempt to deprive the president of his office fell due to a low turnout of only 46% of those eligible to vote who did not live up to the statutory requirement of a turnout of at least 50% of the electorate.
Romania – economy
Romania had a socialist planned economy from the late 1940’s to 1989. The country underwent rapid industrialization, and in the 1970’s the industry expanded to include oil refineries and petrochemical activities, particularly aimed at exports. However, declining profit margins on refined petroleum products combined with rising domestic demand led Romania to run into significant balance of payments and debt problems in the late 1970’s. The main priority of the Ceauşescure regime in economic policy was then to repay the foreign debt. This meant an almost total import stop and domestic rationing of e.g. energy and important export items, including food.
After the system change in 1990, efforts were made to ensure a rapid improvement in the standard of living through imports of consumer goods and political reorientation towards the West. The transition from a planned to a market economy immediately resulted in a sharp decline in economic activity and high inflation, just as weak competitiveness and a large import requirement meant large deficits on the trade and balance of payments. In 1993, Romania reached an association agreement with the EU, and at the same time the decline was reversed. in the form of relatively high economic growth until 1996.
However, progress was not stable, because economic structural reforms were not sufficiently far-reaching. Bureaucratic resistance prevented a rapid privatization/restructuring of the large and often unprofitable state-owned enterprises, which, together with a deficient tax administration, posed a major burden on public budgets. In 1995, inflation, as well as government budget deficits and external balances, began to rise sharply, and the currency, leu, came under considerable pressure. Following recommendations from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the government adopted a reform program in 1996, which, in addition to tightening economic policy and price liberalization, focused on restructuring state-owned enterprises and supervising the banking sector. The tightening of economic policy in combination with insufficient competitiveness led to a fall in GDP of approximately 15% from 1997 to 1998 and a significant increase in unemployment. In 1999, however, the government had only hesitantly embarked on the required structural reforms, which, among other things, involves the closure of unprofitable mines. This was a major reason why Romania was unable to participate in EU enlargement in 2004; Another problem is corruption.
From the year 2000, however, the pace of reform increased, with action against the state industrial sector and other economic austerity measures that reduced the government deficit. At the same time, production increased with annual growth rates of around 5%, and unemployment fell to 6% in 2005. Inflation remained below 10% from 2004, and a currency reform in 2005 replaced 10,000 old lei with a new leu. However, Romania remains one of Europe’s poorest countries with poor living conditions, especially in rural areas and for the large proportion of pensioners resulting from the reform process. EU membership took place on 1.1.2007.
Romania has had large trade and payments deficits in recent years. The main trading partners in 2005 were Italy, Germany and France. However, the country seeks to expand trade relations with other local markets through participation in e.g. Central European Free Trade Area, CEFTA. In 2005, Denmark exported DKK 813 million. DKK to Romania, while imports from there were 319 mill. kr.
Romania – social conditions
In the 1990’s, Romania’s adaptation to the market economy radically changed the social conditions in the country. Thus, real wages in 1997 were halved compared to 1990, at the same time as wage differences have grown. Real income per family had fallen by 20% in 1997 compared to the 1989 level, and increasing poverty can be observed. It is most prevalent in the countryside, where in 1996 20-30% of the population lived below the UN poverty line.
According to official Romanian figures, unemployment in 1997 was 10%, but the OECD estimates that the real figure is at least twice as high. In the case of unemployment, benefits are provided for nine months, provided that the person in question has worked for at least six months within the past year. The benefit amounts to up to 60% of the previous wage income. After nine months, a housing allowance is granted, which corresponds to 20% of an average salary.
Romania spent 6.5% of GDP on pensions in 1997, compared with 7.2% in 1990. During the same period, the number of pensioners increased by more than 50%. The retirement age is 55 years for women and 60 years for men. The long-term unemployed can retire five years before retirement age.
Families with children receive a subsidy per. child.
Romania – health conditions
In 1970 the average life expectancy for men was 65.7 years and in 1996 65.1. For women, the corresponding figures were 70.3 and 72.8. Infant mortality in 1996 was 22.3 per 1000 live births, more than three times higher than the Danish, but still a decrease from 49.3 in 1970. Abortion was strictly forbidden before 1990, but in 1996 there were approximately two abortions for each birth. approximately 2/3of all deaths are due to cardiovascular disease and the proportion continues to rise. The incidence of tuberculosis is increasing, and in 1996 there were 107 cases per year. 100,000 residents, ie. ten times as many as in Denmark. A special problem is HIV infection in children, as it is estimated that approximately half of all infected children in Europe are Romanian. The infection was partly caused by the use of blood transfusions to correct malnutrition, and partly by the lack of sterile disposable equipment.
In the 1990’s, Romania spent approximately 3% of GDP in health care, and all funds were distributed from the Central Ministry of Health to the regions. In 1996, the country had 76 hospital beds per. 10,000 residents and in 1995 20 doctors, of which 41% are general practitioners, and 57 nurses per. 10,000 residents in the public health service. The hospitals are supplemented with a large number of outpatient clinics with specialists and approximately 6000 clinics with general practitioners.
In the 1990’s, a number of private medical clinics were opened that are not subject to regulation. With effect from 1999, a compulsory health insurance scheme was introduced based on the payment of 14% of the salary to a central fund, which is responsible for distributing the funds to the regions’ health services. Check youremailverifier for Romania social condition facts.
Romania – military
The armed forces are (2006) at 97,200, of which 29,600 conscripts with 12 months training period. The army is 66,000, the navy 7,200, the air force 14,000, the common parts 10,000. The reserve is 104,000. The Air Force has received some Western materiel, but the equipment of the defenses continues to be dominated by older locally produced or Soviet materiel. The Army is organized into two territorial and one mobile corps. While most units are heavily equipped, an airborne brigade and a mountain infantry brigade are maintained in standing force. The fleet has seven major and 38 light combat units and a navy of 10,200 men. The Air Force has 106 fighter jets. The border guard and the security forces have a total of 79,900.
Romania – mass media
Since 1989, the Romanian media market has been one of the most dynamic in south-eastern Europe. In 2005, almost 50 dailies were published, and many Romanians like to read three to four newspapers a day. Under Ceauşescu 1965-89, the media acted as a mouthpiece for the Communist Party. Since then, freedom of the press has been enshrined in law, and the number of media has increased explosively. All major provincial towns have at least one local radio and television station as well as a local daily newspaper. A few large media companies dominate the market. The largest dailies are Libertatea (Freedom), circulation approximately 252,000, Jurnalul National (Nationaltidende), circulation approximately 122,000 and Evinimentul Zilei (Today’s event), circulation approximately 75,000. A number of Hungarian newspapers are also published. The state-owned news agency Rompres, grdl. 1949, is hard pressed by the private and independent Mediafax. In addition to the state radio service, SSR, grdl. 1928, there are over a hundred private and local stations. The state television, Televiziunea Română (TVR), has two national channels plus an international satellite channel. In addition, there are a number of private TV stations, the largest of which are Pro TV, Antena 1 and Prima TV. Foreign television via cable and satellite is also widespread; in larger cities, up to 90% of households are connected to cable TV.
Romania – visual arts and architecture
Folk art with its colorful decoration of ceramics, wooden objects and textiles has always been a significant source of inspiration for art in Romania. In ancient times, the country was a cultural melting pot, where Dacian, Greek, Roman, Slavic and Oriental elements formed a very special blending art. Later, a religious art emerged that to the east was strongly influenced by Byzantine traditions, as seen in the churches of Moldova and Wallachia, in architecture, frescoes and icons; Church forts and fortresses were also built, where Byzantine features are common, for example in Tîrgovişte. The Western and Central European traditions were cultivated in Transylvania, where Gothic in particular is well represented, such as the so-called Black Church (1385) in Braşov and the Franciscan Church, now the Evangelical Church (1350-1448), near Sibiu. The famous monastery churches from Moldova display frescoes on the outer walls, where the stories of the Bible are woven together with political messages from the fight against the Ottomans.
When Moldova and Wallachia merged into Romania in 1862, a national art emerged, and the first art school was founded in 1864 by the portrait and history painter Theodor Aman (1831-91). Outdoor painting and impressionism are represented by the painters Ioan Andreescu (1850-82) and Nicolae Grigorescu (1838-1907). A showdown with the academy was marked by the free exhibition in 1896 with Stefan Luchian (1868-1916), in which French influence reappeared. In the early 1900-t. was Constantin Brancusi and Tristan Tzara leading figures in the avant-garde art in Paris; Brancusis sculptural monuments in Tîrgu Jiuis the epitome of Romanian folklore and modern sculpture and is considered milestones in modern European sculpture. Until 1944, architecture and art were characterized by conservative tendencies: massive classicism and Art Nouveau in the Balkan transformation, while socialist realism and Soviet-inspired architecture dominated the time of the 1950’s. Under Ceauşescu’s rule 1965-89, many historic buildings and old churches in Bucharest had to give way to the Palace of Socialism, a gigantic building complex built in a mixture of different styles (see Bucharest).
Romania – literature
Romanian literature has its special character, created by the historical upheavals of the times as well as by the diverse cultural currents from the East (Byzantine and Slavic) and from the West (the Latin tradition, later Italian and French).
Unlike the other Romance languages, Romanian means that the Middle Ages do not contain any written literature on the language. The oldest literary texts, which are especially religious, are written in Slavic or Latin. The oldest preserved Romanian text is a letter from 1521. The earliest works are of a religious nature or direct Bible translations.
Under the impression of the 1500’s European Reformation movements, a number of religious publications were obtained, eg the Old Testament (1582). From the beginning of 1600-t. chronicles have been preserved, just as an actual history writing began from the mid-1600’s. with Dimitrie Cantemir and I. Neculce (1672-1745). There is also a magnificent, complete Bible version from 1688, which Constantin Cantacuzino contributed to.
A new upsurge came in the 1700’s, this time under Catholic influence, from Transylvania. In Moldova, G. Asachi (1788-1869) became a forerunner of modern Romanian literature with his Italian inspiration, while Vasile Alecsandri personifies the renewed flourishing of national culture in the second half of the 1800’s.
The transition to the 1900’s. characterized by TL Maiorescu and his journal Convorbiri Literare (Literary Conversations), in which Alecsandri also wrote. The magazine originated from the company Junimea (Youth) and gained great importance, not least for Romania’s greatest poet, Mihai Eminescu, but also for prominent authors such as I. Creanga and Ion L. Caragiale. At the same time, George Coşbuc ran a traditionalist magazine, Sămănătorul (The Sower), in which the leading prose writer Mihail Sadoveanu wrote. To the circle also belonged the historian Nicolae Iorga. The writings of the wandering Panaït Istrati unfolded mainly in French.
The period after World War II had to be dominated by social realism with representatives such as Zaharia Stancu and M. Preda (1922-80). T. Arghezi continued his writing, while, for example, the lyricist Lucian Blaga (1895-1961), whose metaphysically oriented poetry had difficult conditions in those years, sought refuge in translations of world literature.
From 1965 onwards, the authors achieved slightly freer conditions. During this period, the poet N. Stănescu (1933-83) stood strong. More prominent, however, were the Romanian exile writers, such as EM Cioran, Mircea Eliade and the internationally renowned playwright Eugène Ionesco.
The period after 1989, in addition to many depictions of the fall of the dictatorship, has been particularly marked by a strong urge to rediscover contact with Western European literature and its themes.
Romania – dance
In Southern Romania there are chain dances that have common features with the chain dances in the Balkans. The most important types are hora, sârba and brâu as well as rustem, geampara and schioapa. The male and pair dances from Transylvania and Moldova form a bridge between Central and Southeastern Europe. In the mountain area, male dances that have roots in the Carpathian shepherd culture are danced as group dances with energetic stamp steps in syncopated rhythm. In central Transylvania, the dances are performed in suite and are preceded by purtata, a striding couple dance, followed by the revolving dance învârtita at a moderate pace and by the male dance fecioreascawith jumps and blows with the palms of the legs; the couple dance harţag with pirouettes at a fast pace round off the suite. In Moldova, the couple dance can be seen as a further development of polka. During communism, the traditional dances were used as a symbol of national and political unity. The country still has a living dance tradition in the 1990’s.
Romania – music
Romanian church music has belonged to the Greek Orthodox direction since the Middle Ages; in the western part of the country, however, Gregorian chant is also practiced. Secular folk music played on bagpipes, quotes, lute, drums and scale masters is mentioned in the Codex Sturdzanus (1550-80), Sebastian Tinodis (approximately 1505-56) Cronica (Cluj, 1554) contains epic songs, melodies by the lute player Valentin Bakfark (1507-76), and Ioan Caioni (1629-87) bring in Codex Caioni masses, hymns, motets, ricercars and worldly dances in organ tablature. Valuable information on Romanian folk song, dance, wedding ceremonies, etc. is provided by Dimitrie Cantemir in Descriptio Moldaviae(posthumous 1769). When the Romanian language was introduced into church music around 1700, Filotei sîn Agăi Jipei (1670’s-1720’s) compiled his Romanian psalter Psaltichie rumânească (1714) with all the songs of the church year.
In the 1800’s. emerged a national secular art music based on folk music. Anton Pann (1797-1854) in his main work The Hospital of Love or The Singer of Longing (1850-52) brought 174 melodies to Romanian texts. The 1800’s struggle for independence was reflected in compositions that were marked by folk melodies, and in particular the dance hora became a symbol of the patriotic ideas. Romances, marches and ballads were included in vaudevilles and operettas by Ioan Andrei Wachmann (1807-60) and Alexandru Flechtenmacher (1823-98) and in the most significant dramatic work of the century, the opera Petru Rareş(1889) by Eduard Caudella (1841-1924). The same trend characterized the symphonic music and the chamber music. Most productive in this area was Constantin Dimitrescu (1847-1928) with seven string quartets. A composer of international format got Romania with George Enescu.
After World War II, the whole musical life was reorganized with several symphony orchestras, opera houses, dance groups and entertainment orchestras and a new generation of composers with a great interest in folk music. Among the composers of today who express themselves in a modern avant-garde tonal language are Myriam Lucia Marbe (1930-97), Octavian Nemescu (b. 1940), Ulpiu Vlad (b. 1945), Violeta Dinescu (b. 1953) and Dan Dediu (f. 1967). Internationally known Romanian musicians are the pianist Dinu Lipatti, the conductor Sergiu Celibidache and the pan flutist Gheorghe Zamfir.
Romania – music – folk music
The oldest folk music occurs in connection with the rituals of the changing seasons and the celebrations of families. At Christmas time, groups of adults or children go from house to house in the village, singing secular and religious songs with flutes and small drums; the Christmas songs colinde are characterized by their energetic and irregular rhythm. The customs of fertility include recitation and singing, magical rituals, mask dances and instruments such as the rumble pot buhai and bells. The most important family events are the wedding with the song for the bride and the funeral with the women’s lamentations. Among the shepherds, the long wooden trumpet serves tulnic and the alpine horn bucium or trâmbiţato keep track of the cattle and signal to other shepherds, but they are also played at death and burial. The flutes are most common, eg fluier mare moldovenesc with six grip holes and tilinca, which have no grip holes and therefore, like the trumpets, only use the harmonic series. Newer is the pan flute nai with up to 23 tubes. To the flutes’ repertoire belongs the musical tale of the shepherd who mourns having lost his flock of sheep, but later finds it again and rejoices. A special type of song is doina, a free improvisational form over a lyrical text. Balladen, cântec bătrânesc(‘old-fashioned song’), has a special place at the wedding dinner, where it is often performed by gypsy musicians. In verses of only 6-8 syllables, the moving action is rolled up in an epic-recitative style, and the song is accompanied by violin and lute cobza. These full- or semi-professional musicians (lăutari) also play dance music and listening music in small ensembles or larger orchestras with the chopping board ţambal. The common songs of the people are sung in stanzas with 3-4 lines, in pentatone or modal scales and often in a free parland rhythm.
In the past, there were specific regional styles, but in the second half of the 1800’s. these began to be influenced by major minor tonality and regular rhythm. Béla Bartók was the first to collect and analyze Romanian folk music. He was succeeded by Constantin Brăiloiu (1893-1958), and since 1949 research has been in charge of the Intitutul de etnografie şi folclor in Bucharest.
Romania – film
In 1911, the French Pathé Films set up an independent production company in Romania in competition with small national companies, Art Film Leon Popescu.
The modest Romanian film production of the 1920’s was predominantly fascist-oriented. The first sound films were produced abroad, but from 1934 a local production began.
The film industry was nationalized in 1948. In 1950, the Buftea film city was built north of Bucharest, but despite several co-productions with France, Romanian film remained relatively unnoticed abroad.
The films initially had some oppositional significance, but under Ceauşescu, cultural life from 1965 was centralized and subject to strict censorship.
Among the few Romanian directors with a certain international reputation are the animator Ion Popescu-Gopo (1923-89) and the feature film directors Liviu Ciulei (1923-2011) and Dan Piţa (b. 1938).
Romania – wine
Romania has a wine production of approximately 7.5 million hl (1998) from an area of 200,000 ha. There are four important areas: Tarnave’s white wines are made especially from the grape feteasca, the most widespread in the country. Dealul Mare is the best district for red wines, often made from the grapes cabernet sauvignon, merlot and pinot noir. Murfatlar is best known for soft and sweet white wines, and from Cotnari comes the noble sweet wine that in the 1800’s. was famous in line with tokaj and sauternes. Romania has a precise and detailed wine law, which in the style of the German both indicates the wine’s origin and degree of sweetness.