Education in Georgia is public and free, and there is compulsory schooling from the 6th to the 15th year. The primary school includes a six-year primary school for 6-11-year-olds and a three-year primary school for 12-14-year-olds. A non-compulsory youth education for 15-18-year-olds is divided into a general, a technical and a vocational line. More than 85% of young people attend courses, including just 2/3 of the general line and barely 1/3 on the technical line (1996).
The higher education programs, which require 11 years of schooling, were distributed in the 1990’s at state universities and new private educational institutions. The state institutions are free and have centrally managed teaching content. The private payment institutions train for the banking system and for international trade and management.
Since 1992, private schools have been established at primary school level, which have more resources than the public ones, which are characterized by scarcity in terms of buildings, heating, teacher qualifications and materials. Many teaching materials are still the centrally made ones, and they are not updated after the Soviet era.
OFFICIAL NAME: Sakartvelos Republika
CAPITAL CITY: Tbilisi
POPULATION: 4,660,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 69,700 km²
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): Georgian, Armenian, Russian, Azerbaijani, others
RELIGION: Georgian Orthodox 65%, Muslims 11%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Armenian Christians 8%, others 6%
CURRENCY CODE: GEK
ENGLISH NAME: Georgia
POPULATION COMPOSITION: Georgians 84%, Armenians 6%, Russians 1.5%, Azeris 6.5%, others 2%
GDP PER residents: $ 971 (2007)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 67 years, women 75 years (2007)
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.743
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 97
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .ge
Georgia is republic east of the Black Sea located in the central and western parts of the Transcaucasia. Georgia formally belongs to three autonomous territories, Adjara, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, but the latter two have declared independence.
- AbbreviationFinder.org: Find two-letter abbreviation for each independent country and territory, such as GA which stands for Georgia.
Georgia is an ancient cultural area with at least 5000 years of agricultural history. It was in the early 1800’s. engulfed by Russia, joined the Soviet Union and regained independence with the abolition of the USSR in 1991. Ancient Greeks called the country Iberia; the Georgians call themselves kartvel after the ancestor Kartlos. The Caucasus is most often regarded as Europe’s southern border, and Georgia is thus located in Asia, but political and economic relations with Europe have become closer since 1991 and are a high priority in the new state. Check youremailverifier for Georgia social condition facts.
Georgia – Constitution
The Constitution of the Republic of Georgia is from August 1995. Legislative power lies with a parliament with 235 members, elected for four years in general, direct elections: 150 deputies are elected by proportional representation, 85 by majority in single-member constituencies. The executive power lies with the president, who is elected for five years with the option of one re-election in general direct elections; he composes the government, which must have the confidence of parliament. Legislative initiatives can be taken by the president, deputies, parliamentary committees or 30,000 eligible voters. Parliament can pass a law even if the president denies his signature.
Following the resignation of Eduard Sjevardnadze, the Constitution was amended in early 2004 to introduce a post of Prime Minister. This is appointed by the President after consultations with the group chairmen of the Parliament, and the Prime Minister appoints the Ministers with the consent of the President, the President himself appointing the Ministers of Defense and Home Affairs. With these changes, the president has strengthened his power. According to another constitutional amendment of February 2005, the number of members of parliament will be reduced to 150, of which 50 will be elected in single-member constituencies.
Georgia – Mass media
In Soviet times there were only a few mass media, all of which were official, but under glasnost the number of print media increased to 149 (1989). Under the rule of President Zviad Gamsakhurdia, the media became nationalist and one-sided, but freedom of the press was restored under Eduard Shevardnadze and secured in the 1995 constitution.
Press people, however, have protested against abuse and financial coercion. State radio and television have two channels each, and Russian radio and television and the Voice of America’s Georgian program are also broadcast; there are also local and private TV stations.
Georgia – Literature
Millennials’ oral traditions of fairy tales, legends and heroic songs are the basis of the nation’s poetic wealth, including the numerous variants of the Georgian Prometheus myth Amiraniani. The oldest known book is Jakov Tsurtsavelis Skt. Sjusjaniks Martyrium from 400-t.
Until the end of 1000-t. Byzantine Christian literature was predominant, but under the influence of Persia in particular, a richly varied secular literature gradually emerged. approximately in the year 1200, Sjota Rustaveli created her great verse novel The Knight in the Tiger Skin, which anticipates the humanistic ideals of the Renaissance.
This high culture was interrupted by the invasions of the Mongols, Persians and Turks. In the 1600’s. the literature flourished again, for example with the Wisdom of the Lie by Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani (1658-1725). David Guramishvili (1705-92) contributed to the growing patriotism with the poem The Disasters of Georgia. Another poetic climax was reached by Sayat-Nova (1712-95), who wrote poetry in Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani.
The incorporation into Russia was crucial for the further development, first of the Georgian Romanticism, whose main characters are Aleksandre Tjavtjavadze (1786-1846), Grigol Orbeliani (1804-1883) and Nikolos Baratashvili (1817-45), then of the realistic prose in second half of the century.
Among the pioneers here was the founder of the Georgian theater, Georgi Eristavi (1811-64). Ilja Tjavtjavadze (1837-1907) asserted herself as a poet, novelist, translator, radical publicist and banker and had a decisive influence on Georgian literature and standard Georgian language. All his writing he spent on strengthening the idea of Georgian independence and in 1907 he was assassinated by his ideological opponents. In 1987, he was canonized by the Georgian Church as Ilja the Righteous.
Akaki Tsereteli’s (1840-1915) historical novels and poetry contributed to the belief in Georgia’s independent future and the resulting optimistic mood. The poetic heritage was continued in Vasja-Psjavelas (1861-1915) popular hometown and nature poetry. Alexandre Kazbegi (1848-1893) portrayed human emotions and destinies against the background of the strife surrounding Georgia’s freedom. His accounts form an important part of 1800’s literature.
Likewise, Davit Kldiasjvilis (1862-1931) and Niko Lortkipanidze’s (1880-1944) prose belong to the classical Georgian literary heritage. For two centuries, Georgian and Russian masterpieces were mediated by the leading poets and philologists of the two countries.
With the establishment of the Soviet regime in 1921, conditions changed drastically. Some writers and poets, such as Galaktion Tabidze (1892-1959), Giorgi Leonidze (1900-66) and Konstantine Gamsaxurdia (1891-1975), survived the Soviet era both physically and with their ideologies intact, but many others occasionally took the lead in the Soviet-friendly flew by conducting propaganda for the “right” ideology through their literary works.
“Deviating” poets, including from the symbolist group The Blue Drinking Horn, were persecuted. Executed were Mikheil Djavakhishvili (1880-1937), who had written a number of highly psychological novels and stories, and Boris Pasternak’s close friend Titsian Tabidze (1895-1937). In response to this, the poet Paolo Iasjvili (1895-1937) committed suicide in the House of the Writers’ Association. Many writers emigrated, Grigol Robakidze (1882-1962).
The decades after the thaw in the 1950’s were marked by freer experiments. Nodar Dumbadze (1928-84) is typical of the time with his lyrical prose and existential issues, but also Otar Tjiladze (1933-2009), Tjabua Amiredzjibi (1921-2013) and Goderdzi Tjokheli (1954-2007) are important names in recent Georgian literature..
Within poetry, Ana Kalandadze (1924-2008), Mukhran Matjavariani (1929-2010), Besik Kharanauli (b. 1939) and Lia Sturua (b. 1939) in particular are among the best with their original poetry. The glass cheese of the 1980’s triggered an environmentally conscious and neo-national wave. Old resentment against the Russian “brother people” broke out. The era in which Soviet writers met in the coveted refuges on the Black Sea coast and in the Caucasus Mountains was over.
Freedom of form and style is characteristic of post-Soviet geological literature. Among the younger writers, Aka Mortjiladze (b. 1966) and Beso Khvedelidze (b. 1972) are very popular.