Ecuador Geography and Climate

The first thing that comes to mind when naming “Ecuador” is, of course, the equator. The zero line runs through the whole country, providing uniform heating by the Sun throughout the year. In addition, Ecuador is known for its volcanoes, among which is the highest active volcano in the world – Cotopaxi, mangrove and tropical forests, but the main attraction of the country is the Galapagos Islands. Once here, Charles Darwin conducted his invaluable research for science. Now you too can visit this unique archipelago, which has preserved the most unimaginable species of plants and animals in isolation.

Traveling through the rainforests is best from late August to February, when the roads are not washed out, favorable conditions for relaxing on the coast are observed from April to December.

The official language of Ecuador is Spanish, and many locals continue to speak the Indian dialects of Quechua, Jibaro, Kofai Aushiri, Canelo, and Saparo.

Geography in Ecuador

According to top-engineering-schools, Ecuador is located in South America. The equator passes 24 km north of the country’s capital Quito, hence it got its name. The area of Ecuador is more than 280 thousand square meters. km. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west, Colombia to the north, and Peru to the east and south. The western coastal part of Ecuador is occupied by lowlands, in the central part there is the Sierra mountain region with the high Andes.

The Andes consist of two ridges, elongated meridionally, between which there is an intermountain basin. The mountain ranges include about 20 active volcanoes. The highest point in Ecuador is the Chimborazo volcano (6310 m), which is considered extinct. Pichincha volcanoes are also known (near the capital of the country – Quito), Cayambe (5790m), Ilinisa and the destructive Cotopaxi (5897m) and Sangay. The most active volcano is Sumaco (3732 m) in the north of the eastern Andes.

In Ecuador, earthquakes are not uncommon, which are most dangerous for mountain villages. In the east of the country stretches the Amazonian selva, which is called the Oriente. Ecuador also owns the Galapagos Islands, which are located at a distance of 1000 km from the Pacific coast and consist of more than 100 islands.

Climate in Ecuador

In the plains and in the northern part of the Pacific coast, the equatorial climate dominates. Daytime temperatures throughout the year do not fall below 28 degrees Celsius. The hottest time is from December to May, when it is around +31 degrees during the day. At the same time, the main amount of precipitation falls – monthly 200-250 mm. In the east of the country in the Oriente region, the climate is hotter and more humid. During the day, the air warms up to + 38 degrees, and it rains almost all year round, the annual rainfall is 4500 mm.

In Ecuador, altitudinal zonality is clearly expressed. High in the mountains, it rains quite often and fog forms, up to 1500 mm of precipitation falls here a year. It is cool and damp here, especially from September to May. For example, in Quito during the day the air warms up to +18 degrees, and at night the temperature drops to 9 degrees. In the south of the Pacific coast and in the region of the Galapagos Islands, the cold Peruvian current passes, which reduces the amount of precipitation. On the border with Peru, the annual rainfall is 75 mm. The Galapagos Islands are cool and dry from May to December, with around 10mm of rainfall each month.

Best time to visit:
Traveling through the rainforests is best from late August to February, when the roads are not washed out, favorable conditions for relaxing on the coast are observed from April to December.

History in Ecuador

For the first time, the Kara Indians began to settle in the territory of Ecuador, they came here in the 1st millennium BC. Later, the local population was attacked by the Incas, who settled the subjugated tribes. In 1526, the Spanish conquistadors first appeared here. The Indians resisted and surrendered the capital only after its complete destruction. The capital was rebuilt in 1534.

For several centuries, the colony was ruled by governors from Lima and Colombia. In 1819, the state of Great Colombia was formed, which included the current state of Ecuador. The 19th century was remembered for many revolutions and liberation wars. Ecuador gained its independence after the collapse of Great Colombia, but the political instability in the country did not stop, constant attempts on the government and its leaders led to a military regime.

Now Ecuador is an independent democratic republic, however, after the decision in 2000 to use US dollars instead of the national currency, the local people are dissatisfied, which leads to periodic strikes and clashes.

Ecuador Geography