Colombia Geography


The Republic of Colombia covers an area of ​​1.14 million square kilometers and is located in the north of South America. The country borders in the west on the Pacific (1,700 km coastline), in the northwest on Panama, in the north on the Caribbean (1,500 km coastline), in the east on Venezuela and Brazil and in the south on Peru and Ecuador. The north-south extension is approx. 1,800 km. The highest mountain in the country is the Pico Cristóbal Colón with 5,800 m. Visit thedressexplorer for South America Trade Unions.

Time zone

The time difference between Germany and Colombia is -6 hours in winter and 7 hours in summer.


A third of the country is covered by the high mountains of the Andes, which split into three mountain ranges that run parallel from north to south. The western cordillera slopes down to the Pacific, seven active volcanoes rise from the mountains of the central cordillera, the highest of which is the glaciated volcano Nevado del Huila (5,750 m). Typical of the up to 5,600 m high Eastern Cordillera are the plateaus that begin at 2,700 m. Indian farmers cultivate their fields here with corn, barley, beans and potatoes. Above all, the famous Colombian coffee is grown in the areas between 1,000 m and 2,000 m. The individual cordillera are from the river valleys of the Rio Cauca and the Rio Magdalena separately. The two rivers join 250 km off the coast and flow into the Caribbean. The valleys of the Rio Cauca and Rio Magdalena are densely populated. The population grows wheat, tobacco and cotton. Most of the country is dominated by the lowlands, which extend in the east to the mountainous country of Guyana.

The lowland is divided into the Llanos, undulating grassy plains in the north, while the south of the lowland is dominated by the South American rainforest. The most important rivers in Colombia are the Orinoco and the Amazon.


The indigenous people of Colombia were various Indian tribes who have left numerous traces. The Chibcha tribe in particular produced numerous jewelry and cult objects. The colonial conquest by the Spaniards took place from Ecuador in the 16th century. The Spaniards found their hoped-for dreamland “El Dorado” in Colombia , as Colombia has rich gold deposits that have already been mined by the Indians. The Spaniards united Colombia and Ecuador to form the viceroyalty of New Granada. Under the leadership of Simón Bolívar, the independence struggles began in 1810 and lasted 10 years. The freedom fighter was only able to develop his vision of a “Greater Colombia” until his death in 1830.realize. Then Ecuador and Venezuela left the union. In 1903, in connection with the construction of the Panama Canal, the province of Panama separated from Colombia and formed an independent state. As early as 1840, the proponents of a loose confederation on the one hand and the supporters of a tightly organized, centrally governed state on the other had been smoldering disputes that resulted in bloody civil wars. This dispute continued with the same violence in the 20th century, so that several hundred thousand Colombians lost their lives. Even today, border disputes with neighboring countries lead to armed conflicts that continue to claim fatalities. The uprisings against the unequal distribution of land do not allow the country to calm down and prevent it,

Flora and fauna

The soils of Colombia are very poor in nutrients in the lowlands and on the slopes of the Cordilleras. The more nutrient-rich soils of the Andes, which were removed by erosion, are partially deposited again on the floodplains. The animal world in the high areas has changed a lot due to the heavy settlement, here you can only find a few deer and mountain tapirs. In the rainforest of the lowlands, on the other hand, the original vegetation and fauna have mostly been preserved. Typical animals here are ocelots, capybaras, jaguars, sloths and, in addition to howler monkeys, numerous other species of monkeys. Caimans and anacondas up to 9 m long live in the rivers of the rainforest . The lowest biodiversity can be found on the Guajira peninsula, which has extremely little rainfall. Only thorn bushes and cacti can exist there. The national plant of Colombia is the orchid, which occurs in numerous species. Hemp, from which marijuana is obtained, is grown on the north coast, while coca bushes are grown inland, the leaves of which are processed into cocaine.

Colombia Geography