Canada Geography and Climate

Canada is the second largest country in the world. Its territory extends practically from the North Pole to subtropical regions and from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. Undoubtedly, with such a large area, Canada has unlimited opportunities for a wide variety of types of tourism.

The most comfortable weather conditions are observed from June to August, but at this time a lot of vacationers come to Canada, the main tourist areas are crowded, and there is an increase in prices. In May and September, the weather is warm, but there are noticeably fewer vacationers, in addition, these months are perfect for those who love hiking and ecotourism, as well as fishing. The peak of the ski season falls on the period from December to February, in general, the ski season lasts from November to May.

In Canada, two official languages are English and French, however, French is widely used only in the provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick. It is worth noting that the province of New Brunswick is the only one in Canada where the provision on bilingualism is enshrined in the constitution, in other provinces, with the exception of Quebec, English is the official language according to the constitution. In some northern Canadian territories, the mother tongues of Canada’s small indigenous peoples are also recognized as official languages.

Geography in Canada

According to top-engineering-schools, Canada is located in the northern part of North America. In addition to the mainland, the state also includes numerous islands. The largest of them are the islands of Newfoundland, Prince Edward and Nova Scotia (off the east coast of Canada), the islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (off the northern coast of Canada) and the islands of Queen Charlotte and Vancouver (off the Pacific coast of Canada). The total area of the country is about 10 million square meters. km, which makes it the second largest country in the world after Russia. From the west, Canada is washed by the waters of the Pacific Ocean, from the east – by the Atlantic Ocean, from the north – by the Arctic Ocean. In the south and northwest of Canadaborders the USA.

The coastline of the country is the longest in the world, its length is 244 thousand km. The Pacific coast is rocky and heavily indented by bays. The majestic Cordillera ranges stretch along it and at the northwestern border. This mountainous country includes such ranges as the Mackenzie Mountains, the Rocky Mountains and the Coast Range. Within the Cordillera on the border with the United States is the highest point in the country – Mount Logan (5959 m). Towards the central parts of the country, the mountains gradually lower and turn into a hilly plain, which extends almost to the Atlantic coast. To the north of the Central Plains is the Canadian Shield with glacial relief. Chains of low mountains stretch along the Atlantic coast. The east coast itself has a hilly terrain.

The largest Canadian river – the Mackenzie River – has a length of 4,241 km. But the main river of the country, the valley of which has become a historically important place where the first Europeans settled, and one of the main shipping routes of Canada is the St. Lawrence River (length – 1197 km). In addition, many other rivers flow in Canada.

The entire territory of Canada is strewn with lakes. The largest lakes are located in the northwestern part of the country, primarily the Great Bear and Great Slave Lakes, and in the Central Plains region, where the Great Lakes are located with a basin area of ‚Äč‚Äčabout 245 thousand square meters. km. In the south of Ontario, on the Niagara River, there is the most powerful waterfall in North America – Niagara Falls – 53 m high.

Climate in Canada

Most of Canada has a temperate climate. In the central regions – this is a temperate continental type of climate, and along the coasts – a temperate marine. On the islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, a severe Arctic type of climate prevails, and in the north of the mainland of the country – subarctic.

The Arctic climate zone is characterized by the predominance of negative temperatures throughout the year. Daytime temperatures in February reach -35 degrees, and night temperatures – 45 degrees below zero. In July, during the daytime, the air can warm up to +10 degrees, and at night it can cool down to 0 degrees and below. Precipitation falls up to 150 mm per year.

The subarctic climate zone covers the middle reaches of the Yukon and Mackenzie rivers. The coldest month in these parts is January: daytime temperatures are about -25 degrees, nighttime temperatures are about 35 degrees below zero. The hottest month of the subarctic climate zone is July: daytime temperatures can reach +20 degrees, and nighttime temperatures can reach 10 degrees Celsius. 300-400 mm of precipitation falls per year.

The central part of Canada is dominated by a temperate continental type of climate. In January daytime temperatures are -12..-14 degrees, night – 22..24 degrees below zero. In July, during the daytime, the air warms up to 24..26 degrees Celsius, and at night it cools down to +12..+14 degrees. The maximum amount of precipitation falls in the summer, when up to 80 mm of precipitation is observed monthly. In just a year, up to 600 mm of precipitation falls in the central part of Canada.

Between the eastern slopes of the Cordillera and Edmonton, the climate is highly dependent on the height of the terrain, but it is drier than in the central regions of the country, with up to 350 mm of precipitation per year.

The climate of the St. Lawrence River Valley, where the capital of Canada, Ottawa, is located, is characterized by hot, rainy summers and mild, wet winters. Daytime temperatures of the coldest month – January – reach -3..-5 degrees, night temperatures – 13..15 degrees below zero. In July, during the daytime, the air warms up to +25..+27 degrees, at night it cools down to 13..15 degrees Celsius. In summer, up to 90 mm of precipitation falls monthly, in winter – up to 60 mm of precipitation, in just a year up to 1000 mm of precipitation falls.

The temperate maritime type of climate prevails on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Winters are milder and summers are cooler. Daytime temperatures in February fluctuate around 0 degrees, nighttime temperatures reach -8..-10 degrees. During the summer months during the day the air warms up to +20..+22 degrees, and at night it cools down to +10..+12 degrees. On the Pacific coast, up to 2000 mm of precipitation falls annually, on the Atlantic – up to 1300 mm. The maximum amount of precipitation occurs in the autumn and winter months (about 100 mm of precipitation per month).

The climate of a small area in the southwestern part of the country near Vancouver has similar features with a subtropical maritime type of climate. Here, even in January, the air temperature remains above 0 degrees, and the annual rainfall can reach 5000 mm, and their maximum falls in winter, when up to 200 mm of precipitation falls per month.

It is worth noting that in the southern part of the country from May to September there is a possibility of a tornado.

Best time to visit:
The most comfortable weather conditions are observed from June to August, but at this time a lot of vacationers come to Canada, the main tourist areas are crowded, and there is an increase in prices. In May and September, the weather is warm, but there are noticeably fewer vacationers, in addition, these months are perfect for those who love hiking and ecotourism, as well as fishing. The peak of the ski season falls on the period from December to February, in general, the ski season lasts from November to May.

Canada Geography

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