Austria (Republic of Austria) is a country in Central Europe (2018) 8.8 million residents; The capital is Vienna.
Legislation and enforcement in the education system are shared to varying degrees between the federal and state governments; In the case of universities and art colleges, the federal government is solely responsible, whereby the freedom of science and teaching as well as the freedom of art are constitutionally guaranteed. The federal government also has a clear preponderance of school legislation. Apart from the regulation of the kindergarten system and certain agricultural and forestry schools, the states are essentially only authorized to enact state-related implementing laws for compulsory schools. Since 2019, there have been joint federal-state authorities with the nine education directorates, in which the administrative tasks for the federal and state schools have been brought together. The constitution gives countries the right
The school system itself is divided into general compulsory schools (elementary, secondary, special, polytechnical school), general higher schools (grammar school, secondary school, economic secondary school, upper level secondary school), compulsory vocational schools (vocational school), vocational middle and higher schools (various schools of technical, arts and crafts, commercial and social-professional orientation), educational institutions for kindergarten and social education as well as academies (including vocational education academy, educational academy, academy for health services). In 2008/09 the new middle school was introduced, which has been a regular school since September 1st, 2012. It is a joint school for all 10 to 14 year olds and should have completely replaced the secondary school by the school year 2018/19. In the case of compulsory schools, federal states, municipalities or associations of municipalities act as school authorities; the costs of the middle and higher schools are borne by the federal government.
According to educationvv, there is general compulsory schooling from 6 to 15 years of age; attendance at public schools is free of charge. The principle of co-education applies. Children initially receive four years of primary school; from the 1st grade onwards, lessons in a living foreign language are compulsory. Pupils with special educational needs can either attend a special school or be taught integratively in the elementary school, the secondary school, the new middle school or the lower level of a general secondary school. The one-year preschool, which is part of the primary school, supports school-age children who are not yet ready for school. The primary school is followed by the Hauptschule or the New Middle School or the general secondary school. Even after completing secondary school or With the upper level high school, there is a possibility for new middle schools to continue their education in a general high school; With the appropriate performance, it is also possible to switch to the upper levels of the long forms. The alternative to this are vocational middle or higher schools and the educational institutions for kindergarten pedagogy or social work, which, in addition to the vocational middle schools, such as general higher schools, complete with the school-leaving examination. Secondary school pupils or pupils of the new middle school who do not attend a secondary school complete the 9th year of compulsory education in the polytechnic school. This is usually followed by professional training as part of an apprenticeship. The practical training takes place in the company,
The higher education sector includes 22 state universities and art colleges, including three new medical universities that have emerged from faculties in Vienna, Graz and Innsbruck, which were created with the University Act 2002. The oldest universities are the universities of Vienna (founded in 1365), Graz (1585), Salzburg (1622, newly founded in 1962) and Innsbruck (1669). The Danube University Krems, which focuses on postgraduate further education through university courses, has a special position, which has its own legal basis based on the UG and, among other things. is financed from the course fees.
As a rule, admission to university studies is open to anyone who has completed a higher education with a secondary school leaving certificate. Art colleges, on the other hand, only accept students who have proven their artistic aptitude in an entrance examination. Since the winter semester 2001, tuition fees have been charged at universities for each semester, although there are numerous exceptions. So are i.a. Austrian citizens, students from other EU countries and Swiss citizens are exempt from paying tuition fees. Universities of applied sciences were introduced in 1994 and offer scientifically sound vocational training through courses at university level. The universities of applied sciences decide for themselves whether to charge tuition fees. In addition, accredited private universities have existed since 2000. Vocational and pedagogical academies are separate institutions and serve to train vocational and compulsory school teachers. – Public spending on education represents (2014) 5.4% of gross domestic product (GDP).
In the mid-1990s, the armed forces were downsized and modernized to meet the new security policy requirements and a new deployment concept was created at the same time. Since then, the priority is no longer static spatial defense, but security and defense close to the border. The core of the total of 25,800 armed forces are the “presence forces” and the active militia forces, which are the basis for the training of the 7,800 conscripts who are constantly in service (service period 6 months). The present army is divided into four infantry brigades, including two mechanized infantry brigades, two artillery regiments and three engineer battalions. The aviation division comprises three air and anti-aircraft regiments as well as the “surveillance squadron” for air surveillance.