From the independent to the Soviet republic – Armenia 1918–1990
In the superimposition of social and interethnic conflicts, bloody “Armenian-Tatar” riots broke out in 1905-07 overshadowed and continued until 1920 in territorial disputes (Sangesur, Karabakh, Nakhichevan, Borchalo) with Azerbaijan and Georgia. On November 29, 1920 (until July 1921 the counter-government of “Mountain Menia” stayed in Sangesur), Soviet power was established and in the “Orient Treaty” (March 16, 1921) between Soviet Russia and Turkey, renouncing Kars, Mount Ararat and others. Areas of the border course agreed (in October 1921 confirmed by separate treaties with the three Trans-Caucasian Soviet republics). Article 3 of the contract laid down the autonomy at the same time Nakhchivans under the Azerbaijani protectorate, while Sangesur was awarded to Armenia. On July 5, 1921, in revision of earlier commitments by Soviet Azerbaijan, the decision on the autonomy of Nagorno-Karabakh within Azerbaijan followed (constituted as an autonomous area by decree on July 7, 1923). 1922-36 Armenia was forcibly united with Georgia and Azerbaijan to form the Transcaucasian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic and, after its dissolution, a Union Republic. With the forced collectivization from 1930 and the onset of industrialization, the economic structure of Armenia was fundamentally changed and agricultural production was pushed into second place. In July 1936 L. P. Berija headed it the period of the “Great Purge” which lasted until 1939 and in Armenia BC. a. alleged “nationalists” concerned. In March 1954 there was a partial rehabilitation by the then Minister of Commerce A. I. Mikojan. For reasons of foreign policy and to compensate for war losses (300,000 of the 450,000 Armenian soldiers who participated in the war had fallen), the Soviet leadership temporarily encouraged Armenia to open up to the Armenian diaspora in 1946-48 by allowing immigration (“repatriation”), making Armenia the focus the Armenians could profile. At the same time, the Armenian national consciousness was increasingly articulated in the removal of taboos on historical topics, such as the genocide of 1915 or the loss of the western Armenian homeland.
In the period of glasnost and perestroika under M. S. Gorbachev , Nagorno-Karabakh became (1988 founding of a Karabakh committee) to be the most important catalyst of the Armenian reform movement. The Armenian-Azerbaijani dispute that broke out openly in 1988 over the right of the Armenian majority population of this area to self-determination culminated in the separation of Karabakh from Azerbaijan in 1991 and in Azerbaijan’s attempt to bring the “Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh” back under military control (1994 ceasefire). On December 7, 1988, an earthquake devastated northwestern Armenia (according to official figures at the time, around 25,000 deaths, probably significantly more); the already slow reconstruction was made more difficult by the Karabakh conflict and the Azerbaijani-Turkish transport blockade.
The independent republic of Armenia
For the presidential elections on February 19, 2008, in which Kocharyan was not allowed to apply again after two terms in office, nine candidates ran: in addition to Sargsyan , ex-President Ter-Petrosyan. According to the official election results, the Karabakh Armenian Sargsyan, supported by Kocharyan , won the elections with 52.8% of the vote, which, according to the OSCE, were largely correct. Ter-Petrosian, the runner-up candidate, received 21.5% of the vote. His supporters did not recognize the election result and organized protests in the capital, Yerevan, which on March 1, 2008 resulted in serious clashes between demonstrators and security forces, killing eight. Thereupon Kocharyan declared a state of emergency for 20 days; Ter-Petrosyan was placed under house arrest. The OSCE sent a mediator to Armenia. Sargsyan was sworn in as president on April 9, 2008. Tigran Sargsyan became head of cabinet when the government was subsequently formed(* 1960), the rule of law party also moved into the cabinet. In 2009 the HHD left the government. The rapprochement between Armenia and Turkey that began in the same year, which led to an agreement to establish diplomatic relations and open the border, suffered a setback in 2010. Turkey made ratification and implementation of the relevant protocols dependent on progress in the Karabakh conflict. Following mediation efforts by the Russian President Medvedev , the Armenian President Sargsyanand his Azerbaijani counterpart Aliyev met in Kazan on June 24, 2011 with the aim of taking concrete steps to pacify the conflict. The negotiations remained unsuccessful.
According to aceinland, parliamentary elections were held on May 6, 2012, in which the ruling Republican Party won around 44% of the vote and 69 seats. Tigran Sargsjan remained head of government and formed a coalition of HHK and OEK. In the presidential elections on February 18, 2013, the population confirmed S. Sargsyan with 58.6% of the votes in office. International observers criticized numerous electoral irregularities. Sargsyan’s announcement that Armenia would join the Eurasian Economic Union planned by Russia caused astonishment. The association agreement with the EU, which had been prepared for a long time and planned to be initialed in November 2013, thus initially failed. Against this background stated Prime Minister Tigran Sargsjan resigned on April 3, 2014. On April 13, 2014, the HHK politician Hovik Abrahamjan (* 1958) , the previous speaker of parliament, was appointed as the new head of government. Crisis talks between the presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan on the Karabakh conflict in Paris in October 2014 and in Bern in December 2015 did not make any progress. At the beginning of 2015, Armenia became a member of the Eurasian Economic Union.