Religion. – The town had a first and rudimentary organization, immediately after the foundation of Buenos Aires (1536) by Julián Carasco. But only in 1570 Pope Pius V erected the diocese of Tucumán, whose residence was subsequently transferred to San Miguel and Santiago del Estero, then to Córdoba: hence the definitive name of the diocese. The second of the two dioceses that Argentina had throughout the colonial period was instead that of Buenos Aires, created in 1617, following a dismemberment of the vast diocese of Rio della Plata, which, created in 1547, initially comprised the entire territory from the Strait of Magellan to the borders of Peru and Bolivia, and had Asunción as a residence.
Only in 1806 was the diocese of Salta founded, which included the provinces of Salta, Tucumán, Jujuy, Catamarca and Santiago del Estero. In 1828, the provinces of San Juan de Cuyo, San Luis and Mendoza were first erected as apostolic vicariate, and then under Gregory XVI, in 1834, in a diocese, named by San Juan de Cuyo. The diocese of Paraná also had a similar origin, which was the natural result of the evolution of the apostolic vicariate founded in 1854 and including the provinces of Entre Ríos, Corrientes and Santa Fe.
This progressive increase in the number of dioceses, added to the changed political conditions, made it appropriate to remove Argentina from the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Lima and establish it as an autonomous ecclesiastical province. It took its name from the city of Buenos Aires, elevated in 1865 to the dignity of a metropolis. The diocese of Paraguay, which had its residence in Asunción, also remained attached to this province.
The other dioceses, that of La Plata detached from Buenos Aires, that of Santa Fe detached from the diocese of Paraná, and the diocese of Tucumán detached from that of Salta, were created by Leo XIII in 1897; while Pius X was responsible, in 1907, for the erection of the diocese of Santiago del Estero, detached from Tucumán, and in 1910 for the erection of Corrientes and Catamarca, detaching the first from Paraná and the other from Tucumán.
As a result, northern and central Argentina found itself divided into 11 dioceses. At the same time, however, various ecclesiastical organizations with a missionary character continued to exist, especially in the so-called Territories, for the religious assistance of the various Indian tribes. Among these missions, there were the apostolic vicariate of northern Patagonia with residence in Carmen of Patagonia or in Viedma and the prefecture of southern Patagonia, including with the Tierra del Fuego also the lands of Magellan belonging to Chile. In 1916, however, in order to comply with the desire expressed by the Argentine government, the missionary districts were suppressed and replaced by 14 external vicars placed under the direct jurisdiction of their respective bishops.
Army. – It is made up of 5 infantry divisions, 3 cavalry brigades, 3 mountain detachments, 1 special detachment, “Comodoro Rivadavia”, and various artillery units. Overall the infantry amounts to 19 regiments (of which 2 hunters); each regiment is made up of 3 battalions of 2 rifle companies, 1 machine gun company and 1 link section each. The cavalry amounts to 11 regiments of 4 knight squadrons and 1 machine gun squadron. The artillery includes 5 campaign artillery regiments on 2 groups of 75 mm. and 1 105 mm howitzers battery; 3 groups of horse artillery on 2 batteries of 75 mm.; 2 groups of mountain artillery on 2 batteries of 75 mm. The genius amounts to 5 battalions of digging-bridges on 2 companies each. For Argentina military, please check militarynous.com.
Navy. – New units: Light cruisers: The Argentinia, built in 1937 by Armstrong, of 6500 t. and 30 knots, armed with 9/152, various anti-aircraft cannons and machine guns, 6 launch tubes in two 533 three-tier plants, 2 aircraft, equipped to carry 60 students; Almirante Brown and Veinticinco de Mayo, built in Italy (Odero-Orlando) in 1929-30, of 6800 t. and 33.5 knots, armed with 6/190, 12/100 a.-a., 6 launch tubes in 2 triple 533 plants, 2 aircraft.
Destroyers: 7 under construction in England.
Submarines: 3 (jumping, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero) constructed in Italy (Tosi-Taranto) in 1931-32, from t- 775/920 and 17/19 knots, armat the 8 launching tubes 533 and 1 / 102.
Minesweepers: 7 under construction, weighing 550 t.
The numbers rose to 12,250 men.
Military aviation. – Air Force for the Army, which is under the control of the Ministry of War, General Directorate of Air Force for the Army, includes: a) an aerotechnical directorate; b) a military aircraft construction plant based in Córdoba; c) two hunting groups (based in El Palomar and Los Tamarindos, two bombing groups (based in Brigadier General Justo José de Urquiza and Los Tamarindos), two reconnaissance groups (based in El Palomar and BGJJ de Urquiza) ; d) a military school of aviation; e) three military airports at the locations named.
Naval aviation, under the Ministry of the Navy, Directorate General of Aviation, includes: a) two fighter squadrons (based in Puerto Belgrano and Río de la Plata), a mixed squadron for bombing, coastal surveillance and the reconnaissance; b) a military aviation school in Puerto Belgrano; c) the bases of Puerto Belgrano, Río de la Plata, Punta India, Martín García and Ushuaia.
Finances. – Here we give the figures, in millions of pesos, of state budgets from 1930 onwards.
At 31 December 1936 the external debt amounted to 1241 million and the internal debt to 2565 of which 2504 is consolidated.
In August 1927, after 13 years of suspension, Argentina returned to the gold standard, restoring its pre-war value to the paper weight (0.44 gold weight). However, in December 1929, the gradual weakening of the gold reserve abroad forced the government to suspend convertibility again. In October 1931, foreign exchange control was introduced. Since November 1933 the peso has two rates, the official one (coming from “regular” exports), stabilized since January 1934 at the rate of 15 or 16 pesos for ??? 116 ??? 1, respectively for sale or purchase; and the free one, which as of December 31, 1937 was 17.01. At the beginning of 1938, however, there was a fall in the rates of the peso, following government measures of a commercial nature.
The banking reform of March 28, 1935 created a central bank, which absorbed the ancient Caja de Conversión, with the privilege of issuing (legal reserve in gold and currencies equal to 25% of all sight commitments) and with of circulation and credit control, and the Instituto Movilizador de inversiones bancarias for the liquidation of frozen bank loans. At the same time, the reserves of the Conversion Bank were revalued on the basis of the stabilization in place since 1934. As of December 31, 1937, the central bank notes (convertible into gold bars of at least 400 ounces) amounted to 1150 million and those of the government (divisional currency) to 209, the gold reserve was 1354 million and the foreign currency reserve 68. The main credit institutions are: the Banco de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (1853), the Banco de Italia y Rio de la Plata (1872), the Banco de Córdoba (1873), Banco Español del Rio de la Plata (1886), and Banco de la Nación Argentina (1891) which until 1935 exercised some functions of state bank and is now only commercial bank.