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Education in Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe - education

Zimbabwe Education, Before independence in 1980, the education system was separate for blacks and whites. The following 20 years brought great strides in education; thus, primary school became accessible to all and student participation nearly doubled. From 1991, there has been a social graduation payment for schooling. Parallel to the public school system are many private schools. The illiteracy rate for the adult population is 14.9% (1995).

Education in Zimbabwe

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The school system includes a seven-year compulsory elementary school, which is followed by a British-style superstructure, divided into a four-year and a six-year branch ending with respectively. O-level and A-level (see UK (education)). Teaching takes place mainly in English, in primary school, but also in the local languages shona and ndebele.

Higher education takes place at the country's two universities in Harare and Bulawayo as well as at other colleges.

OFFICIAL NAME: Zimbabwe

CAPITAL CITY: Harare

POPULATION: 13,770,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)

AREA: 390,759 km²

OFFICIAL/OFFICIAL LANGUAGES: English, approximately 20 bantu languages, including shona and ndebele

RELIGION: natives religions 41%, Protestants 24%, Catholics 7%, other Christians 14%, others (including Muslims) 14%

CURRENCY: Zimbabwe dollar

CURRENCY CODE: ZWD

ENGLISH NAME: Zimbabwe

INDEPENDENCE: 1980

POPULATION COMPOSITION: shona 71%, ndebele 16%, white 1%, other 12%

GDP PER CAPITA INH.: $ 1031 (2014)

LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 55.5 years, women 56 years (2014)

LIVING CONDITIONS INDEX, HDI: 0492

LIVING CONDITIONS INDEX, POSITION: 156

INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .zw

POPULATION

Zimbabwe, (ndebele 'the great stone house', after the name of a ruin village in the south of the country), a republic in southern Africa, a British colony under the name of Southern Rhodesia until 1965, when a white minority declared the country independent under the name of Rhodesia. Only in 1980 was Zimbabwe recognized as an independent state. The country has a good infrastructure and one of the most versatile economies in Africa. Mineral wealth, a good climate and good agricultural land attracted many Europeans. A civil war needed to take place before the country could become independent. the land distribution from colonial times caused political turmoil. President Robert Mugabe's increasingly repressive regime has isolated Zimbabwe and brought the country into deep economic crisis.

Zimbabwe - language

Zimbabwe language, Of the country's 19 bantu languages, the most widespread shona and ndebele are spoken by respectively. approximately 10.7 million (2000) and 1.6 million. (2001). Other major bantu languages ​​are those with shona closely related to manyika (about 860,000), kalanga (about 700,000, 2001) as well as ndau (about 800,000, 2000) and nyanja (about 250,000). The official language is English which is also the mother tongue of the majority of the country's white population.

Zimbabwe - Constitution

Zimbabwe Constitution, The Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe is from 1980 with later amendments. The legislative power lies with a one-chamber parliament; it has 150 members, 120 of whom are elected for five years in general elections in single-person constituencies, 12 are elected by the president, 10 are elected by and from the tribal chiefs of Zimbabwe, and the remaining 8 are provincial governors. The executive has the president elected by parliament for a six-year term; the prime minister and other members of government are also appointed by parliament.

Zimbabwe - economy

Zimbabwe - Economy, Zimbabwe is rich in natural resources, agricultural land, minerals and hydropower and has long been one of the most developed economies in Africa, albeit with a very unequal distribution of income and wealth. Many years of disastrous politics, however, have thrown the country into one of Africa's worst and most protracted crises. After independence in 1980, Prime Minister Mugabe introduced a socialist oriented economic policy, which prioritized education, health and defense, but resulted in large government deficits. While growth was high in the first years after independence, rising economic problems through the 1980's following the fall of socialism in the Soviet Union led to a reorientation of economic policy: with support from the International Monetary Fund, IMF, and World Bank started Zimbabwe in 1990 a market economy reform program, ESAP.

Economic growth in the first half of the 1990's was modest; agriculture was hit hard by drought, while the liberalization of foreign trade led to large trade and current account deficits and frequent devaluations of the currency, the Zimbabwe dollar. Due. problems in meeting the requirements for government savings and privatizations of state-owned enterprises, the IMF stopped its payments to Zimbabwe in 1995, further impairing the country's ability to raise capital in the international loan markets. The IMF's support was only resumed in 1998, when the government implemented a new phase in ESAP, called Zimprest, whose objective was to reverse economic development through significant investment in the export sector.

However, it was going to go differently. A growing and costly commitment to regional armed conflicts, including in Congo Kinshasa, along with uncertain political conditions have kept foreign investors away. The government's dictatorial attitude towards the opposition and participation in veterans' occupation of "white" agriculture has partly caused sanctions from the EU and the US. The IMF and the World Bank, in part, resulted in a severe decline in agricultural production. The industrial sector has also been affected. because there has been no currency for energy imports. A majority of the population is now living a life dominated by poverty, unemployment and one of Africa's worst HIV/AIDS epidemics. In addition, according to the UN, 700,000 residentsin 2005, became homeless after a so-called cleanup in Harare's slums. A state of hyperinflation (1205% as of August 2006) has occurred and sought to be countered by a devaluation of 60% and a currency reform that removed three zeros of the face value. Long-term budget deficits have brought public debt above one year's GDP (2005), and the external balance sheet deficit in the same year amounts to a total external debt of more than 19 months of GDP.

Zimbabwe's most important trading partner is South Africa, which in 2005 accounted for approximately 40% of foreign trade. Denmark's exports to Zimbabwe in 2005 totaled DKK 20 million. while imports were DKK 30 million. In 2002, Denmark ceased program cooperation with Zimbabwe, citing the political situation in the country.

Zimbabwe - social conditions

Zimbabwe - social conditions, Poverty was far less extreme in Zimbabwe than in neighboring countries, and the country had achieved great health and educational progress since independence. Progress has been under control through the last years economic and political crisis. Poverty has grown tremendously and the health and education sectors are characterized by a real collapse. Problems due to lack of public resources, fewer international donors and high inflation in these sectors are dramatically increased as staff flees. In 2005, it was estimated that at least half a million professionals, primarily teachers and health workers, had left the country.

At the end of 2003, it was estimated that around a quarter of the population was infected with HIV/AIDS. It is the highest level next to Botswana. HIV/ AIDS is the main reason why life expectancy has dropped to just over 37 years. It is believed that 8-900,000 children have lost at least one of their parents due to HIV/AIDS. The United Nations Agricultural Organization (FAO) estimates that agriculture has lost more than 10% of its workforce due to AIDS. Drought has increased the problems and has at times led to millions of people being dependent on relief.

Zimbabwe - Health conditions

Zimbabwe - Health conditions, Infant mortality is approximately 60 ‰, which is below the average for sub-Saharan African countries. Mortality under 5 years is approximately 75 ‰. The birth rate is relatively high, approximately 30 ‰. The average lifetime is only 39 years. Malnutrition is a major problem among children in Zimbabwe. The most common causes of death are measles, malaria, diarrhea and pneumonia, but other tropical diseases are also common. A quarter of the adult population between the ages of 15 and 49 is estimated to be infected with HIV.

As in the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, the healthcare system previously consisted of only a few hospitals in the larger cities as well as scattered mission stations. After independence, it has been tried with varying degrees of success to create a modern rural health system.

Zimbabwe - mass media

Zimbabwe - mass media, Zimbabwe has had a tradition of relatively free media, but it is now history. Where most other African countries have been given increased freedom of the press, things have gone the opposite way in Zimbabwe. The radio, television and dominant newspapers are all controlled by the government and what is left by private media is under severe pressure. The independent and critical newspaper Daily News has been banned from publication and a lawsuit is being held between the newspaper and the government.

The press laws are very restrictive and make it almost impossible for journalists and the media to work. All journalists must be registered and failure to register can result in incarceration. The state-owned Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC) is the only broadcasting station from Zimbabwe, but exile Zimbabweans broadcast radio to Zimbabwe from London, Washington and Madagscar. Up until the election in 2005, the signal from one of the stations was generated by a stationary noise emitter.

An independent weekly magazine, "The Zimbabwean", is also being produced in London. It is sought to be distributed in Zimbabwe as an international publication and is also aimed at Zimbabweans outside Zimbabwe. See also Africa (mass media).

Zimbabwe - art

Zimbabwe - art, Zimbabwe has a rich tradition of rock painting like South Africa and Namibia, but also for a distinctive architecture with monumental buildings, conical towers, temples, palaces, city walls etc. seen in Great Zimbabwe, the center of the Shona kingdom near the present Masvingo. In the ruins, eight have been found. 1 m high frame-like soapstone sculptures of bird-like creatures with stylized eagle heads and human bodies. The Shonas have a tradition of carving elegant headrests into tight geometric shapes. Since approximately In 1970, they resumed work on soapstone in a more modern design language, and their sculptures are displayed in art galleries in Paris, London and New York.

Zimbabwe - literature

Zimbabwe - literature, Zimbabwean literature has its prehistory in colonial Rhodesia, home to a high profile white settler literature from novels such as Gertrude Pages (1872-1922) Love in the Wilderness (1907) to Wilbur Smith- inspired war melodrama in e.g. John Gordon Davis' (1936-2014) Hold My Hand I'm Dying (1967), but also originated from a masterpiece such as Doris Lessing's The Grass is Singing (1950, The Grass Sing, 1952).

A black African writing literature emerged in the 1950's with encouragement from the colonial Rhodesia Literature Bureau and emphasis on local language texts, on Shona moral teachings by Patrick Chakaipa (1932-2003) and Paul Chidyausika (b. 1927), on Ndebele's excellent dramatic seminal portrayals of Ndabezinhle Sigogo (1932-2006). Nationalist themes emerged in English-language African novels of the 1960's such as Stanlake Samkanges's (1922-88) On Trial for My Country (1966).

In the 1970's, a number of works that became patterned for Zimbabwe literature after independence in 1980: Charles Mungoshi's Waiting for the Rain (1975), Dambudzo Marecheras The House of Hunger (1978) and Stanley Nyamfukudza's The Non-Believer's Journey (1980).

While Charles Mungoshi developed a quiet but intense psychological social realism with underplayed political power, the exiled Dambudzo Marechera embraced expressionist violence, and the equally fugitive Stanley Nyamfukudza focused on the horrors of war and politics, on villagers caught in crossfire between government terrorism and guerrilla terror.

Following Rhodesia's transformation into Zimbabwe, writings on Shona and Ndebele continue to enjoy wide and wide popularity. Also on the shona, Charles Mungoshi is a leading author, while Ndabezinhle Sigogo, as the grand old man of Ndebele literature, has been accompanied by effective successors such as the novelist and playwright Cont Mdladla Mhlanga, whose theater group Amakhosi from the mid-1980's has thoroughly laughed with Robert Mugabe's controlled corruption and abuse of power.

In English, a number of new authors have come into existence since the mid-1980's. The poet Chenjerai Hove writes short, poetically condensed novels that seek to imitate the idiomatics of the Shona language (Bones, 1988), and Tsitsi Dangarembga has very successfully written a feminist education novel (Nervous Conditions, 1988, Nervous Conditions, 1992).

In Harvest of Thorns (1989), Shimmer Chinodya links the big and the small in a panoramic historical and critical novel about the War of Independence and the creation of Zimbabwe. In the 1990's, Yvonne Vera received critical acclaim for his attempts at a condensed, effective short prose, in which both characters in the text and its narrator were allowed to dream, associate and fabulate, for example Without a Name (1994, da without name, 1996) and Butterfly Burning (1998). Since the 1980's, the annual Zimbabwe Book Fair in Harare has been an important playground for critical public.

Zimbabwe - music

Zimbabwe - music, Zimbabwe's traditional music has for a time been dominated by the mbira instrument originally used at a religious ceremony, bira, but in the context of the so-called 2nd Chimurenga war with white minority rule in the 1970's, it became traditional music a symbol of the black culture. The old songs and their special intonation have at the same time been transferred to marimbas and modern electric guitar bands, but the old features of the musical structure are still audible. Among the leading musicians is Thomas Mapfumo. Also, reggae stands strong in modern music life.

 
 
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