Zambia - education
Zambia - education, The public education system in Zambia dates back to the
1880's when British colonial power supported the creation of mission schools. The
influence is still noticeable as the language of instruction is English.
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The school system includes a free, compulsory seven-year elementary school
for 7-14 year olds. The elementary school, which is characterized by high
dropout rate, is followed by a five-year superstructure, which is divided into a
three- and a two-year level that can be general or vocational.
Higher education takes place at the country's two universities
in Kitwe and Lusaka as well as at other higher education institutions.
OFFICIAL NAME: Zambia
CAPITAL CITY: Lusaka
POPULATION: 14,640,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 752,614 km²
OFFICIAL/OFFICIAL LANGUAGES: English, approximately 40 bantu languages, including bemba, nyanja and tonga
RELIGION: Protestants 23%, Catholics 17%, other Christians 6%, natives religions 27%,
Muslims 1%, others 26%
CURRENCY CODE: ZMK
ENGLISH NAME: Zambia
POPULATION COMPOSITION: bemba 40%, maravi 20%, tonga 15%, barotze 8%, other 17%
GDP PER CAPITA INH.: $ 1810 (2014)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 50 years, women 53.5 years (2014)
LIVING CONDITIONS INDEX, HDI: 0561
LIVING CONDITIONS INDEX, POSITION: 141
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .zm
Zambia, (derived from the river name Zambezi), republic and inland
state of southern Africa; formerly the British colony of Northern Rhodesia,
independent in 1964. Copper mining meant that the colony was one of the richest
countries in Africa. But the reliance on copper exports, difficult transport
conditions and a failed policy has since made the country one of the world's
poorest. Zambia is sparsely populated, but population growth is high. Only a
small part of the land is used for agricultural purposes, and an increasing
proportion of the population lives in the cities. As in other developing
countries, there are huge differences between country and city. Most of Zambia
is 900-1200 meters above sea level and appears as a flat plateau with savannah
and relatively cool climate. A number of large nature parks are considered among
the most attractive in the world.
Zambia - Constitution
Zambia Constitution, The Constitution of the Republic, which is from 1991
with amendments from 1996, states that the official language is English. The
legislative power lies with up to 159 members of the National Assembly: 150 who
are elected for five years by general election in single-person constituencies,
a maximum of eight nominated by the president, and a chairman elected by members
of the National Assembly. The executive has the president who is elected for
five years by direct election; he appoints a prime minister and members of the
government. Zambia is divided into nine provinces, each headed by a governor
appointed by the president.
Zambia - economy
Zambia - Economy, President Kenneth Kaunda, after independence in 1964,
embarked on a series of national development programs that partly prioritized
the education and health sector, and partly focused on the expansion of Zambia's
infrastructure and manufacturing industry.
In order to reduce the European influence on the economy, in 1968 the
government nationalized the country's largest companies; the economy was also
subject to tighter government control.
In the 1970's, Zambia was hit hard by falling copper prices in the wake of the
first oil crisis and the sanctions against neighboring Rhodesia; it led to
major balance of payments and debt problems, which continued into the 1980's. In
1986, the country had to apply for financial support from the International
Monetary Fund (IMF). However, it was only after the fall of the communist
regimes in Europe that the government was fully prepared to live up to the IMF's
counterclaim for a rigorous economic stabilization program with social cuts and
sweeping structural reforms.
Therefore, in the 1990's, economic policy was geared to implement market
economic reforms, including a comprehensive privatization program, which
includes the important copper mines. As a reward, the IMF and a number of
bilateral creditors, in 2000 and 2005, written off a significant portion of
Zambia's foreign debt. The recent debt relief opened the opportunity for a free
health service, whose importance is limited by a shortage of personnel.
Zambia's population, many of whom are unemployed or underemployed, and
three-quarters are believed to live for less than a dollar a day, are severely
affected by HIV/AIDS and malaria, and droughts or floods trigger famine from
time to time. An attempt has been made to diversify the economy. with the
development of agriculture and tourism; rising copper prices from 2004 have set
off a modest growth in GDP, but again exposed the dependence on mining. In 2006,
inflation reached less than 10% for the first time in 30 years, and the budget
deficit for 2005 was only approximately 3% of GDP, but government debt had then
reached 72% of GDP.
Zambia's main export markets are South Africa, China and South Korea, while
imports originate primarily from South Africa. Denmark's exports to Zambia in
2005 totaled DKK 28 million. Imports therefrom were DKK 8 million. Danish
development assistance to Zambia in the same year was DKK 200 million. kr.
Zambia - social conditions
Zambia - social conditions, Zambia is one of the world's poorest countries
and the social situation has deteriorated over the last 25 years. In 2002-3, it
was estimated that 67% of the population lives below the local poverty
line. More than 46% live in extreme poverty, making it impossible for them to
get the necessary basic food. Both health and education are characterized by
staff shortages due to high mortality due to HIV/AIDS, but also due to brain
drain. It is easy for qualified staff to get better paid jobs in South Africa,
Social areas have further been affected by falling social public spending. In
recent years, some improvements have been made, but the situation is still worse
than 20 years ago. There is only one doctor per day. 14,000 residents compared
to one doctor per 7,000 residents in 1984. In the country there can be more
than 100,000 people per year. doctor.
Schools have similar problems. In some areas far from Lusaka, there is only
one teacher per 400 students. Despite some growth in investment in education in
recent years, progress has been limited.
The poor state of health especially due to HIV/AIDS means that the average
Zambian can only expect to live for 37-38 years.
Zambia - Health conditions
Zambia - health conditions, infant mortality is approximately 100 ‰, which is the
average for sub-Saharan African countries. Mortality under five years is
approximately 200 ‰. The birth rate is high, approximately 45 ‰. The average lifetime is
only 37 years. The pattern of disease and mortality is characterized by
infectious diseases, and Zambia is one of the countries most affected
by AIDS; It is estimated that 20% of people aged 15-49 are HIV
positive. Tuberculosis and meningitis as sequelae to AIDS are frequent causes of
death, such as pneumonia and gastrointestinal infections. Among children,
malnutrition is widespread and measles is a frequent cause of
death. Malaria, carhariosis, intestinal
parasites, leprosy, cholera, dysentery and sleeping sickness are widespread
diseases. Traffic accidents are among the most widespread non-infectious causes
There is a modern healthcare system in the cities, but many people are
relegated to using the traditional medicine. There is a great shortage of
doctors and other trained healthcare staff.