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Education in Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan (Education)

Uzbekistan (Education), In the public education system, which is free with a nine-year compulsory schooling, teaching since independence takes place predominantly in Uzbek, and great emphasis is placed on the dissemination of Uzbek culture.

Education in Uzbekistan

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The four-year primary school for 6-10-year-olds is followed by a superstructure with a five-year and a two-year level, which is divided into general, technical and vocational lines.

Higher education takes place at the country's four universities and other educational institutions. An Islamic university has been established in Tashkent in 1999.

OFFICIAL NAME: Uzbekistan Republikasy

CAPITAL CITY: Tashkent

POPULATION: 27,300,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)

AREA: 447,400 km²

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): Uzbek, Russian, Tajik, Kazakh, others

RELIGION: Muslims (especially Sunni Muslims) 88%, Russian Orthodox 2%, others el. no 10%

COIN: soum

CURRENCY CODE: UZS

ENGLISH NAME: Uzbekistan

INDEPENDENCE: 1991

POPULATION COMPOSITION: Uzbeks 80%, Russians 6%, Tajiks 5%, Kazakhs 3%, Karakal Pakers 3%, others 3%

GDP PER residents: $ 673 (2007)

LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 64 years, women 70 years (2007)

INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.696

INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 113

INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .uz

POPULATION

Uzbekistan, (after Uzbak Khan of the Golden Horde, 1312-40, and all Muslim Turks who followed the horde, being given the same name), republic of Central Asia. Uzbekistan became independent in 1991 upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Under former party secretary President Islam Karimovbuilt an authoritarian presidential regime through the 1990's without permitted political opposition. The political system and business remained strongly linked, and although the government sought to attract foreign investors, also to strengthen independence, the country is an uncertain investment area. The country is rich in raw materials and an industrial development has begun; the arable part of the land is limited but extremely fertile. Uzbekistan thus has the basis for an independent state formation.

Uzbekistan - language

Uzbekistan - language, Three quarters of the country's population speak Uzbek, which is also the official language. In addition, Russian (approximately 8%), Tajik (approximately 5%), Kazakh (approximately 4%) and Karakalpak, Crimean Tatar, Chuvash and Uyghur, etc. are spoken.

Uzbekistan - Constitution

Uzbekistan - Constitution, Uzbekistan's Constitution of 1992 declares the country a secular and democratic republic. Nationalist and religious parties are banned; the family occupies a central position. The Legislature has the Supreme Assembly with 250 members, who are elected for five years by universal suffrage.

The executive power lies with the president, who is also elected for five years by direct election. He may be re-elected only immediately, but this provision may be repealed by a referendum.

The President, with the consent of Parliament, appoints a Prime Minister and other government ministers, as well as chairing government meetings. He also appoints and controls the governors of the various regions.

Uzbekistan - architecture

Uzbekistan - Architecture, Uzbekistan is rich in historic buildings, predominantly in the cities of Bukhara, Samarkand and Khiva. A major work in Islamic architecture is Ismail's mausoleum in Bukhara from the 900's.

From the time of Timur Lenk and his descendants are several large mosques and mattresses in Samarkand in addition to the burial building Gur Emir (1405); also 1500-1600-ts Islamic architecture is richly represented. Under Russian rule, especially during the Soviet era, in a style that united Western and Central Asian features, as seen in eg Tashkent.

After 1990, many old religious buildings have been restored and rededicated for their original use.

Uzbekistan - literature

Uzbekistan - Literature, The oldest written traditions of the Uzbek tribes were largely destroyed during the Arab invasions in the 600's and 700's. For the next half millennium, poetry was dominated by Islam and translations from Arabic, but in the 14th century. secular poetry also began to assert itself.

Durbek's (1300-1400-t.) Poem Jussuf og Zuleikha (manuscript 1409-10) is one of the period's many free retellings of the legend of Joseph, which is known from both the Bible and the Koran. The linguist Alisher Navoi (1441-1501) recreated the Old Uzbek language in his divans, and his masterpiece, Khamseh (Five Poems) from 1483-85, is still considered a national treasure. Mukhammad Solikh (1455-1506) and Zakhiriddin Mukhammad Babur (1483-1530) wrote epic poems about the everyday life of the Uzbeks and heroic war exploits.

In the 1700's. Masjrab (1657-1711) and others developed a satirical poem, directed at the powerful mullahs. After the incorporation into the Russian Empire, a socio-critical current also emerged, led by Mukimi Mukhammad Amin-Hodja (1851-1903).

The first decades of the 1900's. stood in the sign of the revolutions and the civil war. Sadriddin Aini (1878-1954) wrote tribute poems to the Bolsheviks and the first novels in Uzbek and Tajik. In the 1920's, Nijasi (Hakim-sade Hamsa, 1889-1929) was the main force in the founding of modern Uzbek theater. He was assassinated by counter-revolutionary countrymen.

Despite the ideological and cultural pressures of the Soviet regime, the inherited traditions were passed on by new generations of writers. Timur Pulatov (b. 1939) enjoyed great respect for his lyrical prose, his film scripts and his organizational work during the Glasnost period. In the 1990's, freedom of expression was again curtailed, and many writers fled to Russia. The prominent poet and co-founder of the Popular Front Birlik Mukhammad Solikh (b. 1950) sought exile in Germany.

 
 
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