Uzbekistan (Education), In the public education system, which is free with a
nine-year compulsory schooling, teaching since independence takes place
predominantly in Uzbek, and great emphasis is placed on the dissemination of
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The four-year primary school for 6-10-year-olds is followed by a
superstructure with a five-year and a two-year level, which is divided into
general, technical and vocational lines.
Higher education takes place at the country's four universities and other
educational institutions. An Islamic university has been established in Tashkent
OFFICIAL NAME: Uzbekistan Republikasy
CAPITAL CITY: Tashkent
POPULATION: 27,300,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 447,400 km²
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): Uzbek, Russian, Tajik, Kazakh, others
RELIGION: Muslims (especially Sunni Muslims) 88%, Russian Orthodox 2%, others el. no
CURRENCY CODE: UZS
ENGLISH NAME: Uzbekistan
POPULATION COMPOSITION: Uzbeks 80%, Russians 6%, Tajiks 5%, Kazakhs 3%, Karakal Pakers 3%, others 3%
GDP PER residents: $ 673 (2007)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 64 years, women 70 years (2007)
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.696
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 113
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .uz
Uzbekistan, (after Uzbak Khan of the Golden Horde, 1312-40, and all
Muslim Turks who followed the horde, being given the same name), republic of
Central Asia. Uzbekistan became independent in 1991 upon the dissolution of the
Soviet Union. Under former party secretary President Islam Karimovbuilt an
authoritarian presidential regime through the 1990's without permitted political
opposition. The political system and business remained strongly linked, and
although the government sought to attract foreign investors, also to strengthen
independence, the country is an uncertain investment area. The country is rich
in raw materials and an industrial development has begun; the arable part of the
land is limited but extremely fertile. Uzbekistan thus has the basis for an
independent state formation.
Uzbekistan - language
Uzbekistan - language, Three quarters of the country's population
speak Uzbek, which is also the official language. In addition, Russian (approximately
8%), Tajik (approximately 5%), Kazakh (approximately 4%) and Karakalpak, Crimean Tatar,
Chuvash and Uyghur, etc. are spoken.
Uzbekistan - Constitution
Uzbekistan - Constitution, Uzbekistan's Constitution of 1992 declares the
country a secular and democratic republic. Nationalist and religious parties are
banned; the family occupies a central position. The Legislature has the Supreme
Assembly with 250 members, who are elected for five years by universal suffrage.
The executive power lies with the president, who is also elected for five
years by direct election. He may be re-elected only immediately, but this
provision may be repealed by a referendum.
The President, with the consent of Parliament, appoints a Prime Minister and
other government ministers, as well as chairing government meetings. He also
appoints and controls the governors of the various regions.
Uzbekistan - architecture
Uzbekistan - Architecture, Uzbekistan is rich in historic buildings,
predominantly in the cities of Bukhara, Samarkand and Khiva. A major work in
Islamic architecture is Ismail's mausoleum in Bukhara from the 900's.
From the time of Timur Lenk and his descendants are several large mosques and
mattresses in Samarkand in addition to the burial building Gur Emir (1405); also
1500-1600-ts Islamic architecture is richly represented. Under Russian rule,
especially during the Soviet era, in a style that united Western and Central
Asian features, as seen in eg Tashkent.
After 1990, many old religious buildings have been restored and rededicated
for their original use.
Uzbekistan - literature
Uzbekistan - Literature, The oldest written traditions of the Uzbek tribes
were largely destroyed during the Arab invasions in the 600's and 700's. For the
next half millennium, poetry was dominated by Islam and translations from
Arabic, but in the 14th century. secular poetry also began to assert itself.
Durbek's (1300-1400-t.) Poem Jussuf og Zuleikha (manuscript 1409-10)
is one of the period's many free retellings of the legend of Joseph, which is
known from both the Bible and the Koran. The linguist Alisher Navoi (1441-1501)
recreated the Old Uzbek language in his divans, and his masterpiece, Khamseh (Five
Poems) from 1483-85, is still considered a national treasure. Mukhammad Solikh
(1455-1506) and Zakhiriddin Mukhammad Babur (1483-1530) wrote epic poems about
the everyday life of the Uzbeks and heroic war exploits.
In the 1700's. Masjrab (1657-1711) and others developed a satirical poem,
directed at the powerful mullahs. After the incorporation into the Russian
Empire, a socio-critical current also emerged, led by Mukimi Mukhammad
The first decades of the 1900's. stood in the sign of the revolutions and the
civil war. Sadriddin Aini (1878-1954) wrote tribute poems to the Bolsheviks and
the first novels in Uzbek and Tajik. In the 1920's, Nijasi (Hakim-sade Hamsa,
1889-1929) was the main force in the founding of modern Uzbek theater. He was
assassinated by counter-revolutionary countrymen.
Despite the ideological and cultural pressures of the Soviet regime, the
inherited traditions were passed on by new generations of writers. Timur Pulatov
(b. 1939) enjoyed great respect for his lyrical prose, his film scripts and his
organizational work during the Glasnost period. In the 1990's, freedom of
expression was again curtailed, and many writers fled to Russia. The prominent
poet and co-founder of the Popular Front Birlik Mukhammad Solikh (b.
1950) sought exile in Germany.