Turkey - education
Turkey - education, The current Turkish education system can be traced back
to 1924, when the Koranic schools were replaced by public schools. The reform
work was followed by the introduction of the Latin alphabet in 1928.
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the website to find TOEFL preparation and scoring information as well as iBT
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In the centrally managed education system, the biggest challenges around the
turn of the millennium are to even out differences in terms of regions, genders
and ethnic groups. The ever-decreasing illiteracy rate, which includes women in
particular, was almost 13% in 2008.
The school system, which is characterized by high class quotients, includes a
not very widespread preschool for 3-5-year-olds, an eight-year compulsory and
free primary school, of which the first five years are followed by almost
everyone, while only approximately 70% complete compulsory schooling (1997). This is
followed by 3-4-year upper secondary education, which includes general,
vocational and technical schools; these educations are followed by a total of
Admission to the 30 universities, the oldest of which is the Hacettepe
Üniversitesi in Ankara (established 1206 in Kayseri), and several hundred other
higher education institutions is achieved by a passing central entrance
examination alone. Pga. capacity problems, however, not all passed can
ETYMOLOGY: The word Turkey comes from Turkish. Türkiye, from Mongolian türük 'silk
merchant', see silk, but often interpreted as 'the land of the strong', cf. Old
Turkish türk 'strong'.
OFFICIAL NAME: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
CAPITAL CITY: Ankara
POPULATION: 77,700,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 779,500 km²
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): Turkish, Kurdish, Arabic, Azerbaijani and others
RELIGION: Sunni Muslims 80%, Shia Muslims 19%, others 1%
CURRENCY CODE: TRL
ENGLISH NAME: Turkey
POPULATION COMPOSITION: Turks 70-75%, Kurds approximately 18%, other minorities 7-12%
GDP PER residents: $ 10,482 (2014)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 71 years, women 75 years (2014)
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.759
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 69
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .tr
Turkey, a republic in the Middle East that occupies the peninsula of Asia
Minor (Anatolia) and part of Thrace in southeastern Europe. Turkey's
historical premise is the Ottoman Empire, which in its heyday included parts of
North Africa, the Middle East and the Balkans.
In modern Turkey, there are major differences between the relatively
prosperous western and southern Turkey, with Istanbul, Ankara and Adana,
and the poor interior of Anatolia. approximately one-fifth of the country's population
are Kurds, living mainly in the south-eastern regions as well as in the
industrial cities of western Turkey.
For the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, see Cyprus.
Turkey (Plant Life)
Turkey (Plant Life), Several different plant geographical elements,
Mediterranean, Euro-Siberian, Iran-Turan, etc., meet in Turkey; the flora
comprises approximately 9000 species of vascular plants, many of which are endemic. In
the relatively humid coastal areas by the Black Sea, deciduous forest grows, and
in the mountains coniferous forest. Mediterranean vegetation
(including garrigue, see also the Mediterranean region) dominates along the
west and south coasts; there are forests of Lebanon cedar in the Taurus
Mountains. In the dry Central Anatolia and in the eastern parts of the country
there is often steppe vegetation with many species in the genera astragel,
wormwood, feather grass, etc. in addition to several bulbous plants, eg
tulips. In the mountains, pillow-shaped, prickly small shrubs dominate, in
the genera Acantholimonand espersette (Onobrychis).
Turkey - language
Turkey - language, Official language is Turkish, spoken by approximately 55
million In addition, other Turkish languages are spoken, e.g. Azerbaijani (approximately
530,000). Of the Iranian languages, Kurdish and the closely related zaza
are spoken by an estimated at least 10 million.
Until 2002, the use of Kurdish in education and media was banned in Turkey,
but in the context of the country's negotiations on EU accession, these bans
have been gradually lifted, and the first Kurdish TV broadcasts were introduced
In Anatolia, Caucasian languages are also spoken, among other things. Kabardian (approximately
550,000), Circassian (approximately 280,000), Georgian (approximately 40,000) and
in the northeast near the border with Georgia laz (approximately 30,000. Arabic is
spoken by about 400,000, mainly at the border with Syria, where also spoken New
Syrian (approximately 4000).
In addition, in the European part of Turkey, Slavic languages such as Bulgarian (approximately
300,000) and Bosnian (approximately 55,000) as well as Albanian (approximately
65,000), Armenian (approximately 40,000), Greek (approximately 4000) and Judesmo (approximately
Turkey - religion
Turkey - religion, 98% of Turkey's population are Muslims; the vast majority
are Sunni Muslims who follow the Hanafi law school, but there is also a
significant minority of Alawites (Shia Muslims). In addition, there are small
groups of Jews and Christians; the patriarch of Constantinople (Istanbul) is
one of the most important figures of the Orthodox Church.
The Turkish Republic, proclaimed in 1923, was established as the only modern
nation-state in the Middle East on a declared secular basis. The consistent
separation of religion and politics led in 1924 to the abolition of
the caliphate, the closure of traditional religious institutions, and the
introduction of Western secular legal traditions.
From the early 1950's, Islam again became part of the political debate, and
later Islamist parties have emerged. They have been interpreted as a threat to
the political foundation of modern Turkey, but have nevertheless played a
central role in the country's political development since the early 1970's. The
army has repeatedly taken political control to prevent the Islamic groups from
gaining too much influence, but each time the Islamists have again managed to
organize themselves politically.
Turkey's religious affairs formally fall under the responsibility of the
Turkey - Constitution
Turkey - Constitution, The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey dates from
1982. Legislative power lies with a unicameral parliament, the Turkish Grand
National Assembly, with 465 members (at the April 1999 election), elected by
direct universal suffrage for five years; the blocking limit is 10%.
The president and the government have the executive power. The President is
appointed by Parliament for a term of seven years and may not be re-elected; he
appoints the Prime Minister and, in consultation with him, the other ministers,
and he heads the National Security Council, in which also the Prime
Minister, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of the Interior and the
Defense, as well as the Chiefs of Defense.
The government can curtail a citizen's declared fundamental civil rights if
he or she violates the "indivisible unity of the state". The president can veto
bills, but his veto can be voted down by parliament.
Turkey - political parties
Turkey - political parties, the Democratic People's Party, founded by Kemal
Atatürk in 1923, was until 1946 the country's only party. In 2000, five parties
were represented in parliament. The majority of these originated in 1961-71, but
were recreated under new names from 1986. Turkey has usually been ruled by
The most important parties in the 1990's were the conservative middle-class
parties The True Way Party, DYP, led by Tansu Çiller, and the Motherland Party,
ANAP, led by Mesut Yilmaz (b. 1947), each with a voter backing of approximately 20%.
The surprise of the 1990's was the strong voter turnout in Turkey's cities for
the Islamist Welfare Party, Refah Partisi. In 1996, the party entered into a
coalition with the True Way Party, and its leader, Necmettin Erbakan
(1926-2011), was head of government 1996-97.
Following the dissolution of the Islamist Fazilet Partisi by the
Constitutional Court, two new parties were established in 2001, the Bliss Party,
Saadet Partisi and the Justice and Development Party, Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi
The AK was established by Istanbul's former mayor, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, and
proved to be the best organized of the two Islamist parties. At the election in
2002, AK became the big winner with 363 seats out of 550 possible and formed a
The only other party elected to parliament was the Republican People's Party,
which won 178 seats while the remaining 9 seats were won by independent
candidates. In addition, there are a number of ultranationalist and Kurdish
small parties without significance.
Turkey - economy
Turkey - economy, Although Turkey co - founded the OECD in 1960, the economy
was largely state - led and protected from competition until the early 1980's,
when a severe political and economic crisis led to a military coup and an
economic regime change.
The new government implemented market economy reforms, including the
liberalization of foreign trade and capital markets, and privatized many small
and medium-sized enterprises, but left the state in control of infrastructure,
large industries, and several large banks.
The reforms created unemployment and budget deficits, but also a solid
economic recovery, and until the mid-1990's Turkey experienced the highest growth
in the OECD area.
Since then, developments have been more mixed, and due to the lax economic
policies of changing governments, Turkey experienced severe crises in 1994, 1998
and 2001, resulting in high inflation and large annual deficits in public
budgets and the trade balance. Thus, in the 1990's, consumer prices rose by 90%
per year on average. In order to avoid too strong an erosion of competitiveness,
measures were taken, among other things. to write down the currency, the lira,
against a currency basket consisting of dollars and D-marks (euro from 1999).
Turkey's traditionally large trade deficit has not been fully offset by large
surpluses in the tourism industry and transfers from Turkish guest workers in
other countries, and by the end of 1998 the external debt had grown to more than
half of GDP.
The country has had difficulty attracting foreign direct investors, which is
why the deficit on external balances must be financed through borrowing abroad
and portfolio investments (see international capital movements).
In order to strengthen investor confidence, Turkey entered into an agreement
with the International Monetary Fund in 1998 on the monitoring of a
stabilization program which, inter alia, must reduce inflation, reform the tax
system and reduce public sector debt through privatization.
Cooperation with the IMF continued after the crisis in 2001, and it has
succeeded in bringing inflation below 10%, while growth is extremely high (7.5%
on average in 2002-05), aided by foreign investment. A new currency, the YTL
(Yeni Türk Lirasi - New Turkish Lira), was introduced in 2005.
Turkey's most important trading partners are the EU, which accounts for
approximately half of foreign trade, as well as the United States and Russia. In the
composition of exports, industrial goods with an increasing content of high
technology are dominant. Turkey has a large trade and payments deficit; the
external debt in 2005 was 51% of GDP.
Turkey became an associate member of the Community in 1963, and economic
relations between the parties were expanded in 1996 with a customs union. In
1999, the EU launched a pre-accession program with Turkey, which, among other
things, provided financial support from the EU to Turkey for the implementation
of necessary structural reforms before membership negotiations could be
In 2004, the European Commission assessed that the process of economic and
political reform in Turkey was sufficiently advanced for the start of membership
negotiations, which they did in 2005. However, admission is not expected to take
place until 2014 at the earliest.
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Turkey has expanded its
cooperation with the countries around the Black Sea, including as co-founder of
the Black Sea Economic Cooperation.
Denmark's exports to Turkey in 2005 amounted to DKK 2.35 billion. DKK, while
imports from there were 4.55 billion. kr.
Turkey - social conditions
Turkey - social conditions, Turkey is characterized by great differences
between country and city and between rich and poor. In the big cities live the
economic elite, who have understood to benefit from the government's efforts to
promote the conditions for private investors and entrepreneurs, but here are
also large groups of unskilled labor who have settled in slum areas
(see gecekondu) in the outskirts of cities.
Social welfare benefits are extremely limited. The family has traditionally
played a dominant role as a social and economic safety net, and its influence
remains significant, for example in connection with marriage, just as within the
family, which here must be understood more broadly than the nuclear family,
people continue to help each other both financially and in connection with old
age, illness and other social events. The financial means that Turks outside the
country send home to the family constitute a significant element of the Turkish
economy. Friendship services are widespread, and corruption a serious problem.
Women have had the right to vote since 1934 and other ordinary civil rights
since 1926, such as the right to divorce, but in reality the view of women is
still marked by tradition despite public efforts to provide equal access to
education and employment and equal pay.
Turkey has repeatedly been in the spotlight due to the country's treatment of
ethnic minorities, the use of torture and the suppression of professional and
political activities. has been a serious obstacle to the realization of Turkey's
desire for closer ties with the EU.
Turkey (Health Conditions)
Turkey (Health Conditions), In 1960, the average life expectancy for the two
sexes was 47 years; by 2008, it had risen to 70 years for men and 74 years for
women. Infant mortality in 2008 was 26 per. 1000 live births against 147 in
1970. There are significant geographical variations with the eastern and
southeastern regions being the most disadvantaged. In children, the most common
cause of death is infections, often combined with malnutrition, in young
accidents, and among middle-aged heart disease and lung disorders. Malaria has
occurred in waves with peaks in 1976 and 1994; in 1997, 55 cases were diagnosed
per 100,000 residents
The state runs part of the health care system, but there is also a large
private sector. Society spent 3.8% on health care in 1996; the state accounted
for approximately 43% of the expenses, private health insurance for 22%, while the
rest came from direct patient payment. In 1996, the country had 1.1 doctors and
2.5 hospital beds per. 1000 residents
Turkey - legal system
Turkey - legal system, In 1926, the Swiss Civil Code was enacted as the new
Turkish Civil Code and completely replaced the Muslim law that had been in force
until now. As the new law was written for a society which, in its social,
religious and economic structure, was totally different from the Turkish one,
the application of the law entailed great difficulties of adaptation. For
example, the new law only recognized marriages entered into for a civil
authority. In the countryside and in small towns, marriages continued to be
entered into as before, in that man and woman in the presence of parents or
other witnesses and possibly with the blessing of a priest made the necessary
promises. Children born in these marriages were by law born out of wedlock, even
though people considered them marriages, and had to be later legislated to make
Turkey (Military), The armed forces are (2006) at 514,850, of which 391,000
conscripts with 15 months of service. The Army is at 402,000, the Navy at 52,750
and the Air Force at 60,100. The equipment is Western produced, a mix of modern
and older. The reserve comprises 378,700, the army part is 258,700, the navy
part 55,000 and the air force part 65,000.
The army has 32 armored brigades as well as at least 11 infantry and
5 hunter brigades. In addition, there are a large number of
specialized regiments and battalions as well as 37 armed and 95 transport
helicopters. The fleet has 19 larger and 55 smaller combat units,
10 submarines, 35 demining vessels, 67 landing craft and vessels, 27 support
vessels, 7 aircraft and 16 helicopters, as well as a 3,100 navy. The Air Force
advises over 445 fighter jets, 7 tankers and 77 transport aircraft of
various types. The security forces comprise just over 100,000.
Turkey controls the Bosphorus. In 1952, Turkey became a member
of NATO following demands for Soviet naval bases on Turkish soil. In 1974,
Turkey was at war with NATO partner Greece over Cyprus, Turkey's armed forces
have been deployed against the Kurdish rebel movement PKK and after the Gulf
War, Turkey was the base for fighter jets that maintained the no-fly zone north
of the 36th parallel in Iraq.
Turkey - mass media
The first Turkish newspaper, Takvım-i-Vekayi, was founded in Istanbul in 1831
and was a semi-official government magazine. From the mid-1800's. actual dailies
began to appear.
Although the newspapers have relatively large circulation, the printed press
is poorly widespread, weakest in eastern Turkey. Radio and television reach the
entire population. In 2005, 67 dailies were published. The leading figures are
Cumhuriyet (Republic), which was founded in 1924 and has a circulation of
approximately 58,000 and Hürriyet (Freedom), grdl. 1948, which with a circulation of
approximately 519,000 is also one of the largest in the country.
Other major newspapers are Sabah (Morgen), grdl. 1985, edition
approximately 446,000 and Milliyet (Nation), grdl. 1950, edition approximately 261,000. They
are all based in Istanbul and are politically in the middle, but have no real
party affiliation. In Ankara, the English-language Turkish Daily News,
grdl. 1961, which has a circulation of approximately 54,000. The news agency Anadolu
Agency was founded in 1920.
The state radio and television, Türkiye Radyo Televizyon Kurumu (TRT),
grdl. 1964, has several nationwide radio channels, five nationwide television
channels and two satellite television channels. In the early 1990's, the state's
radio and television monopoly was abolished, and today there are over 1,000
private radio stations and about 300 private television stations. Among the
largest TV channels are Channel D, Show TV, Star TV as well as the news channels
NTV and CNN Türk. The population also has access to a number of foreign
satellite programs, including Kurdish.
The military, political Islam and the Kurdish question are sensitive topics
in the media; on the other hand, criticism of politicians and government
officials is common.
Turkey - visual arts and architecture
Influences from the West already prevailed in the Ottoman Empire (art and
architecture before 1923 are treated here). Following the example of Western
European academies, the Istanbul Academy of Arts was founded in 1883. In the new
Turkish Republic, Western influence was strengthened.
Kemal Atatürk sought to promote national culture, and he regarded the
appreciation of art as one of the traditional characteristics of the Turks. This
led to the creation of an art museum (1937) in Istanbul and to the sending of
talented artists and architects to Western Europe, particularly France and
Germany, to study.
Stylistically, it came to influence art and architecture in the first half of
the 1900's, exploring European styles, from Cubism and Fauvism to Realism and
Abstraction, in painting and sculpture, while functionalism characterized
architecture, as seen in Ankara, for example..
With the new styles after 1960 and the end of the Western monopolization of
the history of art, Turkish art has also distinguished itself
internationally. This has especially happened after the dissolution of the
military regime in the 1980's, which, like developments in Eastern Europe, led to
a new and mutual openness to the rest of the world. See also Turkish rugs.
Turkey - literature
The oldest known work written in Turkish is the Orkhon inscriptions from the
700's, found in Mongolia; see also Turkish languages.
Medieval Turkish literature
Medieval Turkish literature originated in Anatolia from the 13th to the 14th
century. Its genres are chronicles, legends, legends and folk poetry, among
others. a. the great quatrain Dede Korkut and Nasreddin
Hoca's fables. The first Sufi poetry also arose here with, for example, Yunus
Emre (see also Sufism).
The Ottoman literature
With the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman literature developed
into a dominant poetry of great power and court until 1839. From the period,
e.g. divan poetry (see divan), dervish poetry (see dervish) and folk
The divan lyricists Baki (1526-1600) and Fuzuli (1495-1556) wrote collections
of poems in a highly stylized language with Arabic-Persian and Turkish elements.
The poems are based on specific keywords such as soul, love, ruler, slave,
garden, sigh and moon; in its subject matter, this divan poetry is often akin to
the religious dervish lyric.
Next to the hoflyrikken played encyclopedic the literature a large part in
the form of travel reports, history and geography, for example Evliya Çelebis
(1611-84) travel book (ed. 1898-1938).
Folk literature often contains time-critical and satirical elements, and
several of its troubadours were persecuted, such as Pir Sultan Abdal, who
belonged to the Shiite minority and was executed for insulting His Majesty
The Western-oriented Tanzimat literature
Western-oriented Tanzimat literature began in 1839 with the
so-called Tanzimat Declaration, which heralded political reforms. In the
literary field, contemporary French novels were translated, and the divan lyric
was heavily criticized.
This is especially true of Namık Kemal, who, as a writer, journalist and
magazine publisher, helped found the modern literary public in Turkey. This
development was continued by the visionary and socially committed lyricist and
social debater Tevfik Fikret.
The Republican literature from 1923 until the 1960's continued the optimism
and belief in progress. This applies, for example, to the patriotic
writers Halide Edib Adıvar and Yakub Kadri Karaosmanoğlu (1889-1974), whose
novels are about the war against the Greeks and the opposition between city and
It was not only the belief in modernity that was at the center, but also the
interest in Anatolia as the new Turkish territory that was to be cultivated and
be the opposite of the Ottoman Empire's association with Islam and the
The interest in everyday life, the popular and a simple language also
included the so-called village teacher literature, with Mahmut Makal's (b. 1933)
novel Our Village (1950) and Yaşar Kemal's epic novels building a
modern mythology with elements from the pre - Ottoman period.
While realism was often linked to a socialist commitment to society, as
with Aziz Nesin, Tahir Demir Kemal and Orhan Kemal,
emigrant literature emerged in the 1960's less marked by political theses,
depicting the lives of former villagers in Western Europe, such as Fakir
Baykurt, Aras Ören (b. 1939) and Güney Dal (b. 1944).
An important part of republican literature is modern theater, inspired by
European avant-garde and epic theater, to which several of the great writers
have written, such as Nâzım Hikmet, Aziz Nezin and Adalet Ağaoğlu.
The modern Turkish literature
Modern Turkish literature from the 1960's to the present is characterized by a
greater pluralism, a showdown with realism and nationalism and an increasing
orientation both to the west and to the east.
As a counterweight to the realistic literature in Turkey stands partly the
poetry with its enormous significance for the development of literature, partly
the intellectual Turkish metropolitan novel, including Turkish women's
literature, which since the founding of the republic has held an important
position with names like Füruzan (b. 1935), Adalet Ağaoğlu and Pinar Kür (b.
The lyric already developed in the interwar period two tendencies: a popular
utopian and a language-conscious-experimenter with Nâzım Hikmet and Orhan Veli
Kanık on one side and Fazıl Hüsnü Dağlarca on the other. Typical of both
directions, despite their modernity, are also the deep roots of tradition and a
suspicion of avant-garde art.
Between the two tendencies, Turkish poetry has to this day unfolded great
wealth and variety, not least in light of the neo-Islamic currents that have
developed poets like Ismet Özel (b. 1944), who combine great knowledge of
European modernism with Sufi background.
The major figures and inspirers of the modern Turkish metropolitan novel are
Sabahattin Ali (1907-48) and Sait Faik, but especially Ahmet Hamdi
Tanpinar. He has crucially influenced the form-experimenting Turkish novel of
today, breaking with the long tradition of realistic novels by incorporating
influences from James Joyce, the new French novel, and the American meta-novel.
This inspiration can be found in Nedim Gürsel and especially Orhan Pamuk,
who has a far greater sense of style, form, aesthetics than the realistic
predecessors. Despite the great individual differences, modern Turkish
literature seems under new conditions to continue the tradition of Tanzimat,
both in its optimism, its cosmopolitan attitude and its form experiments, which
are still able to span between European modernism and oriental tradition and all
the time transform and renew both traditions into something special Turkish.
One of the most important new features in Turkish literature around the turn
of the millennium is the attempt to distance oneself from the patriotic
self-understanding and create greater literary possibilities and more
differentiated descriptions of the private and personal.
This tendency to no longer regard actions and persons as types of general
development is seen, among other things, in the great popularity that the new
Turkish crime novel has gained.
Among the new, popular authors are Ahmet Ümit (b. 1960), who revolves around
the oppression of minorities and abuse of power in the political system, for
example in the Istanbul novel The Mist and Night (1996), and "the new
Orhan Pamuk", the author Buket Uzuner (b. 1955), which in his novels Mediterranean
Waltz (1998) and A Cup of Turkish Coffee (2001) deconstructs
Turkey and Istanbul as the center of the world, and in contrast emphasizes
Turkey's connection not only to Western modernism but also to Asian cultures.
In the new Turkish literature, the detective novel has acquired an almost
symbolic and general meaning that extends far beyond the framework of the genre
itself; it has become an expression of a pervasive-skeptical attitude to all
great truths and rigid structures of power.
The driving force behind these tendencies, and the subject of much current
Turkish literature, is undoubtedly the question of Turkey's future as a member
of the EU, which will demand radical reforms of Turkish society.
Turkey - theater
Apart from a distant connection to early shamanistic rituals, Turkish theater
has for centuries been characterized by the Turks' adoption of Islam with its
distancing from theatrical activity. Dramatic portrayal, however, has been
tolerated in religious contexts and in connection with important events at
court, and among the upper class, diverse forms of performance have taken
place. An original folk theater with fixed characters, a partly improvised plot
and a certain satirical free language has developed. The simplest is a narrator
who alone presents the action and its various characters with only two props, a
club and a scarf. There are several puppet theater forms, the most popular of
which are the shadow plays with the popular hero, Karagöz, who got a Greek
successor, Karagiozis, and his fake opponent, Hacivat. Similar farces and
satires are performed by actors under conditions reminiscent of commedia dell
The expansion of the Ottoman Empire in Europe in the 1500's. brought with him
an interest in Western theatrical forms, and from the mid-1800's. Turkish drama
developed rapidly. In 1913-14, André Antoine was invited to Istanbul to organize
a permanent theater and a theater school in the city. After the establishment of
the republic in 1923, the development took off with the establishment of
educational institutions, state theaters in major cities and touring, and around
2000, Turkey has an extensive and multifaceted theater life.
Turkey - dance
Until the 1930's, each community had its own limited repertoire of dances,
which formed an integral part of the traditions and rituals associated with
wedding and circumcision parties as well as at special seasonal events.
The repertoire, which generally consists of solo, group, couple (two men or
two women), circle and chain dances, shows great regional and stylistic
The Kurds also have their own dance traditions. Furthermore, there are
special dance rituals among various religious sects within Islam such as the
Sufi order Mawlawi and among Alawites.
In 1932-50, the creation of a network of local culture houses, ice rinks ('people's
houses'), in the villages and the smaller provincial towns contributed to the
collection of a large number of dances, which were partly processed for use by
the local amateur dance groups in the individual culture houses.
Turkey - music
Turkish music has emerged from an interplay between forms of music from
Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe. These elements are today fused
together into a fairly homogeneous music area.
The music is based on a system of keys, the maqam system, which consists of
over 100 modes, which include micro-intervals. Beat rates from two to 120
counting units are used. Beats such as 5/8, 7/8 and 9/8 are quite common.
In folk music, the most important genres are türkü, which are
locally specific folk songs, as well as the troubadour style aşık,
both accompanied by the string instrument saz.
Saz is the most widely used instrument in Turkey. Certain minorities,
especially the South Caucasus Lazar and the Kurds in Eastern Turkey, have
managed to retain their musical distinctiveness. Among the Roma, the clarinet
and hand drum darbuka are among the most important instruments.
The classical repertoire stretches from the 14th century to the present. Many
of the classical composers were members of the Mawlawi Sufi order, in whose
music the ney flute plays a significant role. Among them was the
composer Ismail Dede Efendi (1778-1846), who composed both secular pieces and
religious music for the Sufi congregation.
Religious music also includes prayer calls (ezan) and religious
hymns (ilahi). The military music includes the Turkish timpani kudüm and
cymbals, which were also recorded in the European military orchestras in
the 18th century.
In step with today's media influence, Turkish music is exposed to massive
pressure, especially from the West and the Arab countries. The majority of pop
music, however, has retained a distinctly Turkish distinctiveness. Singer Sezen
Aksu (b. 1954) is an example of a pop star who combines the foreign influence
with a respect for Turkish music tradition.
Turkey - film
Turkey - film, Turkish film was dominated up to the 1940's by theater and film
adaptations of especially Mushin Ertugrul (1892-1979), from the 1950's also by
lighter genres. In the 1960's, Turkish film was a transition more
frontier-seeking in its subject matter, and Metin Erkesans (b. 1929) Susuz
Yaz (1964, Dry Summer) won the Golden Bear in Berlin.
The military coup in 1971 was the background for several films in the 1980's,
including The Golden Palm Winners Yol (1981, The Road) by
Yilmaz Güney (1937-84), which gives a rough portrait of a tradition-bound
In the 1990's, new, individualistic instructors emerged, such as Yilmaz Arslan
(b. 1968) and Ferzan Ozpetek (b. 1959), who was in charge of the Turkish
Fatih Akin's major films have so far been German-produced, but because of his
themes, people in Turkey have tended to regard him as one of his own. In 2004,
he began a trilogy, Liebe, Tod und Teufel, with the film Gegen die
Wand, which became an international success. The film received the Golden
Bear at the Berlinade 2004 and 5 Lola awards (Deutscher Filmpreis). In 2007, he
released the second part of the trilogy, Auf der anderen Seite.
Turkish cuisine has a rich food tradition based partly on Middle Eastern
traditions in a broad sense, partly on the highly developed cuisine culture
associated with the Ottoman court in Istanbul, which for centuries had the
resources to experiment with a wealth of ingredients, spices and processing
methods. Development has continued in modern Turkey in connection with an
extensive restaurant life, especially in the cities.
The kitchen is typically built around menus with soups or many small
starters, mezze, which can be pickled vegetables, eggplants in
different varieties, seafood, salads, stuffed wine or cabbage leaves, olives,
etc. The main courses are beef or lamb, often grilled; a specialty is baked meat
dishes. In addition, a lot of fish is eaten. Then follow desserts in the form of
sweet cakes or fruit and Turkish coffee or tea, strong and sweet.
The food is refined and varied spicy, but rarely strong; it is a principle
that the raw material must be able to be tasted. Commonly used spices are
allspice, paprika and cinnamon; in addition, parsley, garlic, lemon juice,
yogurt and spicy olive oils are used.
Since most Turks are Muslims, pork or meat that is not ritually slaughtered
is not eaten. Rules on not enjoying alcohol are enforced to some extent. In some
areas of the province, alcohol is not served at all, while conditions in the big
cities of western Turkey are almost the same as in Europe. In recent years, the
American fast food chains have spread in fierce competition with the many small
shops that sell grilled meat, kebabs and salads wrapped in pancakes.
Turkey has with over 600,000 ha the fifth largest area of grapes in the
world, but only approximately 3% is used for wine. The annual production of approximately 50
mio. bottles are evenly distributed between red and white wine, to which is
added a little rosé. Many of the over 1000 local grape varieties are ancient,
but most wines today are made from French grapes. 50% is made by
the Sea of Marmara, and the 21 large state farms account for 90% of
exports. Most famous are the white Trakya and the red Busbağ.