Tajikistan - Education
In the public education system, which is free and includes nine years of
compulsory schooling, the teaching takes place predominantly in Tajik. Only 0.3%
(1995) of the adult population are illiterate.
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The four-year primary school for 7-11-year-olds is followed by a
superstructure with a five-year and a two-year level. Primary school is followed
by 93% of a year group, and the superstructure by 76% (1995). Higher education
takes place at the country's university in Dushanbe as well as at a dozen other
higher education institutions.
OFFICIAL NAME: Jumhurii Tojikistan
CAPITAL CITY: Dusjanbe
POPULATION: 7,300,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 143,100 km²
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): Tajik, Russian, Uzbek
RELIGION: Sunni Muslims 80%, Shia Muslims 5%, Russian Orthodox 2%, others el. no 13%
COIN: Tajik rubles
CURRENCY CODE: TJR
ENGLISH NAME: Tajikistan
POPULATION COMPOSITION: Tajiks 65%, Uzbeks 25%, Russians 3%, others (Tatars, Kyrgyz, Ukrainians,
GDP PER residents: $ 237 (2007)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 61 years, women 66 years (2007)
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.652
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 122
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .tj
Tajikistan, Republic of Central Asia. The country, like the other Soviet
republics, became independent upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in
1991; it was then one of the poorest republics of the Soviet Union. Large
transfers to investments in agriculture, industry and power plants had not been
sufficient to provide employment for the country's rapidly growing population.
There were deep regional, political and religious contradictions, which
became apparent after independence, and which resulted in armed conflicts in the
1990's, with some groups receiving support from Afghanistan. The Civil War was
devastating to the already weak economy; production fell more drastically than
in other former Soviet republics, and destroyed bridges and roads severed the
already difficult connections between the regions. By the year 2000, Tajikistan
was a weak state formation, heavily dependent on Russian support.
Mining, energy and industry
Tajikistan's subsoil contains many raw materials, but natural conditions and
transport difficulties make exploitation difficult. However, a lot
of coal, oil and natural gas are extracted. There is also an extensive gold
extraction that foreign investors have shown interest in. The industrial sector
is relatively small and employs only 6% of the workforce (2003). These are
mainly a few large companies for processing agricultural products (tobacco,
wool, cotton, silk, meat, dairy products). By the water-rich rivers, a large
number of hydropower plants have been built, and almost the entire country's
electricity consumption is covered from here. Cheap electricity was the reason
why the central government of the Soviet Union built a large aluminum factory at
Tursan-Zade near the capital Dushanbe. Although production more than halved in
the first years of the 1990's, in 1995 aluminum accounted for almost 60% of the
country's export earnings. This was also the case in 2005, when production
reached 85% of Soviet-era production.
In the extremely mountainous country, the construction of roads and railways
is very difficult and there is no transport network that connects the
country. Roads and railways are few and laid out according to the needs of the
Russian Empire and later the Soviet Union. There are railways out of the country
from the capital Dushanbe and from the city of Kurgan-Tjube in the SW, and to
the north a transit line connecting via Khudzhand the eastern and western part
of Uzbekistan. However, the old caravan road, which crosses four high mountain
passes through Gorno-Badakhshan, has been extended to car traffic, but for
several winter months it is not passable.
Tajikistan - language
The official language is Tajik, which is spoken by approximately 3.5
million (1995) and is a southwestern Iranian language related to
Persian; see Iranian languages. In addition, the Turkish language is spoken Uzbek by
approximately 1.5 million (1995). Both use the Cyrillic alphabet. Russian in
particular has been the language of administration in the past.
Tajikistan - Constitution
The Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan is from 1994. The legislature
lies with a unicameral parliament, Majlisi Oli 'the Supreme Assembly',
with 181 members, elected by universal suffrage for five years. The president,
who has wide powers, is elected by direct universal suffrage for five years and
can only be re-elected once. He shall appoint a Prime Minister and other
Ministers subject to the approval of Parliament.