Somalia (Education), In the 1970's, large-scale literacy campaigns were
launched with some success and a strong effort was made to expand the education
system with a free and in principle compulsory eight-year primary school.
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The 1980's were marked by a decline due to the civil war. Thus, in 1990, 76%
were illiterate and less than 10% attended school. Illiteracy is estimated to
have increased in the following years. The country's only university, Somali
National University, is located in Mogadishu. Around 2000, a
functioning education system has not yet been built, except for some Quranic
OFFICIAL NAME: Jamhuriyadda Dimuqraadiqa ee Soomaaliya
CAPITAL CITY: Mogadishu
POPULATION: 10,600,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 637,657 km²
OFFICIAL/OFFICIAL LANGUAGES: somali, arabic, other
RELIGION: Sunni Muslims 100%
CURRENCY: Somali shilling
CURRENCY CODE: SEA
ENGLISH NAME: Somalia
POPULATION COMPOSITION: Somali 98%, Arabs 1%, others 1%
GDP PER CAPITA INH.: $ 600 (2010)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 46 years, women 48 years (2007)
LIVING CONDITIONS INDEX, HDI: -
LIVING CONDITIONS INDEX, POSITION: -
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .lake
Somalia, Republic of Northern East Africa on the Horn of Africa. The country
became independent in 1960 as an association of northern British Somaliland and
southern Italian Somaliland; at the same time French Somaliland became the
Republic of Djibouti.
Somalia's population is fairly homogeneous, almost exclusively Somalis,
which is unusual for African countries. Homogeneity is expressed through common
history, language, religion and traditions as well as the political and
administrative system. Somalis have a millennial nomadic culture, and in Somalia
there are more camels (dromedaries) than in any other country.
The area is tropical semi-desert, the country is poor and has been severely
affected by both drought and flooding; In addition, since the late 1980's,
Somalia has been plagued by settlements between various groups of Somalis; the
settlements reflect to some extent clan interests. Since the early 1990's, the
country has been divided between warring warlords, and from 2000-t. Islamist
groups have taken control of much of the southern part of the country.
Somalia - language
Somalia language, Official language is from 1972 Somali spoken by the vast
majority of the population. Small population groups speak other Cushitic
languages, including oromo, or bantu language. Arabic is widely used along the
coast as a second language.
Somalia - Constitution
Somalia Constitution, The Constitution of the Republic of Somalia is from
1979. It declares that Somalia is a one-party state led by Somalia's
Revolutionary Socialist Party, but the constitution has been suspended since
the resignation and escape of President Siyaad Barre in January 1991.
In 2000, a reconciliation conference decided that after a three-year
transitional period, a federal state with 18 regional administrations should be
established. Meanwhile, a Transitional National Assembly (TNA) composed of
leading clans was to exercise the legislative power.
In 2004, after lengthy negotiations, a decision was made to create a new
national parliament with 275 members. 61 representatives came from each of the
four largest clans and 31 from a coalition of smaller clans. Parliament elected
a president - the leader of the Puntland region - who then appointed a prime
minister to put together a government approved by Parliament.
Somalia (Music), The music of Somalia has always accompanied the oral poetry
and is influenced by Arabic music. Traditionally used only drums, but
lutinstrumentet out and violin has gained ground. Since 1945, radio has
made great changes, and modern instruments are now heard in the peculiar,
rhythmically distinctive music.
From around 2008, all music other than the religious fair is banned in the
southern parts of the country.