Serbian, Serbo-Croatian Srbija republic on the Balkans; 88,361 km2,
7.47 million. residents (2003). The capital is Belgrade. Serbia borders Montenegro
as well as Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria,
Macedonia and Albania. Until 2006, Serbia was part of the Union of Serbia and
Montenegro, and before that of Yugoslavia. The republic includes in the north
the former autonomous region, the plain Vojvodina (21,506 km2),
which is an extension of the Hungarian Plain and popularly called the Serbian
Chamber of Commerce. Until 2008, Kosovo was part of Serbia.
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The Danube crosses Serbia on its way to the Black Sea and receives
tributaries from the great rivers Sava, Morava, Tisa and their
tributaries. South of the Sava and Danube the terrain changes character to a
hilly landscape and further south a mountainous landscape; here are The
Kopaonik Mountains with Suvo Rudište (2017 m).
In the southeast there are spurs from Stara Planina, and the landscape
reaches in Midžor up to 2168 masl In the southwest, Serbia reaches the
Dinarids. The highest mountains are found on the border of Montenegro and
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Morava's distinctive north-west-southeast-going river valley divides the
mountain landscape and forms an important traffic corridor, and along the Danube
are the major industrial cities. approximately 40% of Serbia is grown, and slightly
less than 1/3, forest cover.
Serbia and Montenegro
Serbia and Montenegro, Serbia in Crna Gora, 1992-2003 Yugoslavia,
a state in the Balkans that emerged in 1992 from the "Rest of Yugoslavia",
ie. the states of Serbia and Montenegro, which remained as the rest of the much
larger Yugoslav People's Republic had gradually become four independent states
(Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia);). The state retained
the name Yugoslavia until it was replaced in 2003 by the looser union of Serbia
and Montenegro. After a referendum in Montenegro in May 2006 gave a majority for
Montenegrin independence, the union between Serbia and Montenegro was dissolved.
Serbs, South Slavic peoples; the largest (36%, approximately 8.5 million) in
the former Yugoslavia, which was divided into five states in 1991-92. Orthodox
Christianity has formed the cultural background of the Serbs at least since the
1200's, which has separated them from the linguistically very closely related
Croats and Bosniaks.
The Serbs immigrated to the Balkans in the 600's. along with other Slavic
tribes, possibly from present-day western Ukraine. See also Serbia (history).
Especially as a result of the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, they were
spread over a large area, and in 1991 they accounted for only 65.8% of the
population of Serbia (including Vojvodina and Kosovo), but respectively. 31.4%
and 12.2% of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. Since 1995,
almost the entire Serbian population in Croatia has been displaced, and in 1999
the same thing happened in Kosovo, where until then they amounted to
approximately 10%. In 1999, approximately 700,000 Serbs from other parts of the former
Yugoslavia as refugees in Serbia itself, in Vojvodina and in Montenegro.
The Montenegrins, which in 1991 totaled 534,000, of which 380,500 in
Montenegro, are considered by some to belong to the Serbian nation.
Especially for the religious part of the population, national and ethnic
identity are linked to religious affiliation. The Serbian and Montenegrin
population is affiliated with the Serbian Orthodox Church, the country's largest
denomination. The church is autocephalous, ie. that it has its own head, and is
headed by the Serbian Patriarchate and the Synod of Belgrade. In Vojvodina,
Serbs, Romanians, etc. are Orthodox, but for example the Hungarian population is
Roman Catholic or Reformed. The border regions between Serbia and Montenegro
have a significant Slavic-speaking Muslim population. Protestant denominations
and Judaism have very limited prevalence. In the 1990's, the conditions for free
religious practice were improved in Yugoslavia, and the Orthodox Church in
particular has benefited from this change.
The Serbian Orthodox Church gained through the intervention of Archbishop
Savas (Holy Sava) (1174-1237) independence from the Byzantine Reich Church in
1219, but lost its independence again after the Ottoman conquest of the entire
The recent history of the Church has unfolded in close connection with
political developments. Along with the success of the Serbian freedom movement,
the need arose for an independent (autocephalous) church, formed in 1879 with
its center in Belgrade. In 1920, the Serbs gained ecclesiastical recognition of
a collection of all the Serbian church provinces that were now within the
borders of the Yugoslav kingdom, and the church leader was given the status of
patriarch. The church includes (1999) approximately 8 mio. believers and also has
founders for Serbs in USA, Australia, Romania and Western Europe. In the
1990's, under the leadership of Patriarch Pavles (1914-2009), the church sought
to distance itself from President Milosevic's rule while defending Serbian