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Education in Philippines

Philippines - Education

It is a goal to ensure education for all in a multilingual society with great geographical spread. An investment in adult education has thus meant that illiteracy is only approximately 6% (1991).

Education in Philippines

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The language of instruction in the schools is, as a general rule, English, which together with pilipino is compulsory. To a certain extent, other national languages ​​are also taught.

The one-year preschool is voluntary and is applied for by 11% of a cohort (1990), while the 6-year primary school is compulsory and is completed by virtually everyone. As a superstructure, there are partly general schools that offer 2-4-year general education courses and are sought by approximately 1/3 of a year, partly commercial schools offering VET 1/2 -3 years and is being sought by 27% of a cohort (1991). There are also a significant number of higher education institutions, and 3% of a cohort study at this level (1991).

At all levels of education except primary school, private institutions play a significant role; for example, almost half of the pupils go to the superstructure stage in private schools.

OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of the Philippines

CAPITAL CITY: Manila

POPULATION: 103,700,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)

AREA: 300,000 km²

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): pilipino, English, tagalog, cebnano, a total of approximately 160 languages

RELIGION: Catholics 83%, Protestants 9%, Muslims 5%, others 3%

COIN: peso

CURRENCY CODE: PHP

ENGLISH NAME: Philippines

INDEPENDENCE: 1946

POPULATION COMPOSITION: Malays (including bisaya, tagalog, ilocano, bicol and fun) 95%, igorots, negritos and other tribes 3%, Chinese 1%, others 1%

GDP PER residents: 1124 $ (2007)

LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 69 years, women 73 years (2007)

INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.763

INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 84

INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .ph

POPULATION

Philippines, republic and island nations of Southeast Asia. The many islands border the South China Sea from the Pacific Ocean; the area is a geologically active zone and the country has many active volcanoes and regularly experiences earthquakes. The Philippines is a developing country with a colonial background during first Spain and in the 1900's. USA; it became independent in 1946. The population is ethnically very complex and there are significant social, political and religious contradictions.

Philippines - language

About 160 languages ​​are spoken in the Philippines, all of which belong to the Austronesian language family, but only approximately 50 are well known, as some tribes and their languages ​​have been unknown until well into the 1900's. Several of the languages ​​are spoken by only a few hundred people. The many languages ​​probably originate from several separate Austronesian immigrants. The Negritos have all replaced their original language with neighboring Austronesian languages. A single collector-hunter group, the tasaday, on the other hand, are Austronesians who have at some point abandoned their former farming culture. The main languages ​​are Tagalog and Cebuano, spoken by resp. approximately 15 mio. and approximately 20 million; Tagalog is understood by many more. Also six of the other languages: ilokano, ilongo, bikol, waray, kapamganic and pangasi, are spoken by quite large population groups. The official language is Pilipino, a variant of Tagalog and English. Pilipino is becoming more and more widespread, while English is used administratively and in the media. Spanish, formerly considered an official language, is now of little importance, except by name, as most Filipinos have both Spanish first and last names. A Spanish-based Creole language has also been developed,chavacano, spoken by approximately 300,000.

Philippines - religion

approximately 80% of the population belong to the Roman Catholic Church. From 1565 the Spaniards led an extensive mission; Spanish orders became the country's largest landowners, but also met with resistance, eg the Jesuits were expelled 1769-1859. In 1898, church and state were separated.

In connection with the secession from Spain, an independent Philippine church was founded in 1902, Iglesia Filipina Independiente, which since 1965 is in alliance with the Old Catholic Church and today has approximately 10% of its supporters. About 2% of the population is affiliated with the Protestant churches, including the local Iglesia ni Kristo.

There are minorities of Muslims, Buddhists and traditional tribal religions.

Philippines - Constitution

The Philippines is a republic with a constitution from 1987. Legislative power lies with the 24 members of the Senate, elected for six years by direct election, and in the House of Representatives with 250 members, of which 200 are elected by direct election for three years. at a time, and 50 are nominated by the President from candidate lists proposed by non-religious minority groups, including women, urban poor, young people and small farmers. The executive power lies with the president, who is elected for six years by direct election, as well as with the vice president. The President's proposals for members of government, senior officers, and ambassadors must be approved by a special appointments committee consisting of 12 senators and 12 members of the House of Representatives. The President may declare a state of emergency, but Congress may override such a decree by a majority vote.

Philippines - Economy

The Philippines' economy has traditionally been based on agriculture, but in the mid - 1970's, President Ferdinand Marcos launched an industrialization plan, which was largely financed through foreign borrowing. A sharp deterioration in the balance of payments and capital flight following the assassination of opposition leader Benigno Aquino in 1983 led to a dramatic development in the debt situation, and the country had to suspend payments to foreign creditors for a short period.

Financial support from the International Monetary Fund, IMF, and a debt restructuring agreement with the creditors were made conditional on a tight economic policy, and in the coming years, the Philippine community found itself in a deep crisis. Among other things. unemployment rose to over 15% and about half of the labor force was underemployed.

To promote economic growth and employment, the 1986 Corazon Aquino government launched a series of structural reforms, and economic policy in general was relaxed in agreement with the IMF. Trade was liberalized, the great sugar and coconut monopolies were dissolved, and a new land reform was adopted. However, the reform program was only a partial success, not least due to a slow bureaucratic workflow and strong reluctance on the part of the landowners.

Nearly half of the population lives in deep poverty, widespread corruption and a costly guerrilla fight burden the public budgets and a large debt is established. In the 1990's, efforts to privatize the economy intensified. It has succeeded in attracting large foreign investments, and since 1994, foreign banks have again been allowed to establish themselves in the country.

The country was hit by the Asian crisis in 1998, but slowed down and GDP growth reached 5% in 2005. A sector with particularly strong growth and an estimated employment of more than 100,000 (2005) is outsourced telephone service, with many Filipinos speak English much like Americans. Furthermore, many work abroad, not least in shipping, and their repatriated income makes an important contribution to the balance of payments.

The Philippines has due to the more lenient economic policy has nevertheless not been able to achieve balance in the economic relations with the rest of the world, and the country is still dependent on support from the IMF and on ongoing debt restructuring agreements with the creditors. The currency of the Philippines, the peso, was pegged to the dollar until 1970, but has since fluctuated freely. Although the government has continuously tried to stabilize the exchange rate, the peso has periodically fallen in value against the dollar.

Japan, the United States and China are the Philippines' main trading partners, but the country is actively working for closer regional cooperation and has been a member of ASEAN since its inception in 1967.

In 2005, Denmark's exports to the Philippines amounted to DKK 472 million. DKK, while imports amounted to 707 mill. kr.

Philippines - social conditions

There are no social schemes for up to 50% of the population living below the poverty line, typically in the countryside. Thousands of villages lack opportunities for education and health and, in general, living conditions. The country remains an oligarchy, where the elite's approximately 10% dispose of 80% of the values.

The elite can, of course, afford to buy all the social services they want, most often in the United States or Europe. In addition, an emerging middle class in the urban centers that do not have contacts to clientelism and patronism that is dominant in the countryside. Many of these have private insurance, and government employees are members of a public health insurance scheme that minimally covers pensions, accidents, subsidies for hospital stays, and medical and medical expenses.

Tax evasion is common and corruption and nepotism abound at all levels of society. Therefore, the weak state power has few resources and the ordinary Philippines lives in a vulnerable marginal position.

Philippines - health conditions

Health status and disease spectrum are characterized by social and economic development and by climatic and geological conditions. Annually recurring hurricanes and floods as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions cause many deaths; Tropical diseases such as malaria and bilharziasis as well as poverty-related diseases such as respiratory infections and diarrhea are still widespread. The presence of WHOsregional office has been important for successful health campaigns especially against polio, childhood diseases and vitamin A deficiency as well as expansion of the primary health system. Child mortality has halved in the period 1965-95, just as maternal mortality is significantly lower than in neighboring countries. The use of contraceptives is low, and population growth has been almost unchanged in the period 1965-95. Air pollution in Manila as well as other environmental medical conditions are increasingly affecting health conditions, as are HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. Also the type of hepatitis that can cause liver cancer, is widespread but is expected to be controlled when an effective vaccine becomes cheaper. The Philippines itself has a rapidly growing vaccine industry.

Philippines - military

The armed forces are (2006) at 106,000. The army is at 66,000, the navy 24,000 and the air force 16,000. The reserve is approximately 131,000. All guards are equipped with older Western, primarily American equipment. The armament is mainly of types from the 1960's-1970's, some even older. The defenses are relatively lightly equipped and adapted to the country's geography and terrain. Their composition shows that the primary task is internal security, while the country's defense against external enemies is actually a US responsibility. The security forces have 40,500 at their disposal.

Philippines - mass media

The Philippines formally had full press freedom until President Marcos imposed a state of emergency in 1972, which entailed harsh control of the media. When President Aquino took power in 1986, she therefore committed herself to respecting freedom of the press, but an emergency law from 1989 authorizes the President to temporarily take control of the media that threaten national interests.

The majority of newspapers and radio and television stations are owned by a few wealthy families and business groups. A partial exception is the Catholic Church's publications and network of radio stations as well as the Catholic shortwave station Radio Veritas Asia, which broadcasts in 14 languages.

The number of newspapers has quadrupled since Marcos' fall, but the total circulation is unchanged. The most important newspapers are published in Manila, and the most influential is the Philippine Daily Inquirer (1985) with a circulation of 250,000 (2006). A few hundred newspapers are published from the provincial capitals. The national news agency PNA (Philippines News Agency, 1973) is state-owned.

Philippines - architecture and art

The Philippines does not have one national art tradition, but many more or less local traditions, which have been created under the influence of China, Malaysia, Spain and the United States. Some of the original traditions are still alive. In northern Luzon, the Iguuga people in particular are known for their often religious wooden sculptures, such as bulol, which are human-like figures that are placed in pairs in the storehouses and are thought to protect the rice. Also Muslim people in the Sulu Islands and on Mindanao are wood carvers, but in a more flourishing style, which is of no religious significance. A common motif is the naga, the dragon, another sari manok, a bird figure. In Mindanaoin addition, metalwork is made mainly in brass and sometimes with patterns inlaid in silver. For the large Christian population, religious art was long dominant. The missionaries brought along saint figures, who were imitated by anonymous Filipino artists; the same was true of altarpieces that were cut in relief and painted.

The church building, which began shortly after the arrival of the Spaniards, followed the alternating Spanish style of building, which was gradually added to local features; churches with combined bell and lookout towers and associated monasteries were erected at central squares. Secular buildings were also built in a partly Latin American pattern. With the Americans, especially to official buildings came American-style architecture. After independence, large, modern business districts and prestigious buildings were built, especially in Manila. Outside the cities, the original building custom is still used, ie. houses of wood or knocked out pipes, which are most often built on piles.

Secular painters, who especially cultivated local scenery, began to emerge in the early 1800's. Damian Domingo (d. 1830), who mainly painted watercolors, was one of the earliest. He opened an art school in 1815; later the government founded an art academy. In the late 1800's. worked several significant painters, such as Félix Hidalgo (1855-1913) and Juan Luna (1857-99), who both spent most of their lives in Europe, where they received the essential part of their education and became highly recognized. They both follow Western painting tradition, but often use subjects from Filipino history.

In the early 1900-t. Fernando Amorsolo (1892-1972) painted motifs from popular life, while others painted under the influence of French Impressionism. After World War II, there has been a development in Philippine painting towards neorealism and a more abstract style.

Philippines - literature

The First Printed Book, Doctrina Christiana (1593), is a bilingual text: Tagalog - Spanish. Due to strict censorship, only religious literature as well as dictionaries and grammars were printed until the first secular works were published in the 1830's. European medieval romances about the struggle of Christian knights against the Moors became role models for new literary genres. Both narratives in verses called corrido (eight-foot verse) and awit (twelve-foot verse) as well as the theatrical form comedy or moromoro were about kingdoms invaded by Muslims, which are eventually conquered by Christian heroes. Florante and Laura(1838, Florante and Laura), a tale written in the awit verse by Francisco Baltazar, better known as Balagtas (1788-1862), is considered a masterpiece in Tagalog literature. A well-known example of a comedy is Don Gonzalo de Cordoba (1831) by Anselmo Fjardo. Payson is tales of the life of Christ that focus on his suffering, crucifixion, and resurrection. The most famous payson was written in 1704 by Don Gaspar Aquino de Belen and was the first epic poem in Tagalog. Furthermore, Rules of Good Conduct, also modeled on Spanish, were popular. For example, Lagda (1734) is considered a milestone in Cebuano literature because of its linguistic qualities.

The most famous and influential Filipino novels, Noli me Tangere (Touch Me Not, 1887) and El Filibusterismo (The Subversion, 1891), were both written in Spanish and published in Madrid by the patriot and martyr José Rizal. Rizal's novels are highly anti-clerical and contain violent condemnations of the unjust social and political conditions in the Philippines under Spanish rule. Although Spanish after 1900 was quickly replaced by English, it remained a literary language for the first thirty years of the 1900's.

Literature in the local languages

Zarzuela, a kind of operetta that originated in Spain, had a renaissance in the late 1800's. and was in the first two decades of this century used for political and social satire wrapped in love stories. The first novel in Tagalog was Gabriel Beato Francisco's Cababalaghan ni P. Brava (1899). Most famous, however, is Lope K. Santos' novel Banaag at Sikat (1906, The Rays of Dawn), which is influenced by socialist ideas; Marcelino Crisologos Mining weno Ayat ti Cararua (1914, Spiritual Love) written in ilocano and inspired by Freud; Faustino Aguilars Ang Lihim ng Isang Puto(1927, The Secret of the Cake), combining romantic love with social indignation; Antonio G. Sempio's social realist novel Punyal na Ginto (1933, The Golden Knife); Lazaro Francisco's novel about the Japanese occupation, Sugat ng Alaala (1949, A Wound to Remember). Amado V. Hernandez is especially famous for the poem Bayang Malaya (1969, A Free People).

The English-language literature

The English-language literature originated from college and university environments. It was secular and influenced by American writers and American values ​​and views. Until 1940, it was a "youthful literature" written by and for young people. A generational gap between a parent generation that preferred Spanish and a younger generation that preferred English is a theme that Nick Joaquin addresses in his play A Portrait of the Artist as Filipino (1940). After World War II, an increasing number of novels and short stories have been published in Tagalog, although English-language literature is still dominant. F. Sionil José's novel Mass (1984) has been translated into Danish (Daggry, 1989).

 
 
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