Philippines - Education
It is a goal to ensure education for all in a multilingual society with great
geographical spread. An investment in adult education has thus meant
that illiteracy is only approximately 6% (1991).
TopSchoolsintheUSA: Do you plan to take the TOEFL exam in Philippines?
Visit the website to find TOEFL preparation and scoring information as well
as iBT test dates and locations around this country.
The language of instruction in the schools is, as a general rule, English,
which together with pilipino is compulsory. To a certain extent, other national
languages are also taught.
The one-year preschool is voluntary and is applied for by 11% of a cohort
(1990), while the 6-year primary school is compulsory and is completed by
virtually everyone. As a superstructure, there are partly general schools that
offer 2-4-year general education courses and are sought by approximately 1/3 of a
year, partly commercial schools offering VET 1/2 -3
years and is being sought by 27% of a cohort (1991). There are also a
significant number of higher education institutions, and 3% of a cohort study at
this level (1991).
At all levels of education except primary school, private institutions play a
significant role; for example, almost half of the pupils go to the
superstructure stage in private schools.
OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of the Philippines
CAPITAL CITY: Manila
POPULATION: 103,700,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 300,000 km²
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): pilipino, English, tagalog, cebnano, a total of approximately 160
RELIGION: Catholics 83%, Protestants 9%, Muslims 5%, others 3%
CURRENCY CODE: PHP
ENGLISH NAME: Philippines
POPULATION COMPOSITION: Malays (including bisaya, tagalog, ilocano, bicol and fun) 95%, igorots,
negritos and other tribes 3%, Chinese 1%, others 1%
GDP PER residents: 1124 $ (2007)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 69 years, women 73 years (2007)
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.763
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 84
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .ph
Philippines, republic and island nations of Southeast Asia. The many islands
border the South China Sea from the Pacific Ocean; the area is a geologically
active zone and the country has many active volcanoes and regularly
experiences earthquakes. The Philippines is a developing country with a
colonial background during first Spain and in the 1900's. USA; it became
independent in 1946. The population is ethnically very complex and there are
significant social, political and religious contradictions.
Philippines - language
About 160 languages are spoken in the Philippines, all of which belong to
the Austronesian language family, but only approximately 50 are well known, as some
tribes and their languages have been unknown until well into the
1900's. Several of the languages are spoken by only a few hundred people. The
many languages probably originate from several separate Austronesian
immigrants. The Negritos have all replaced their original language with
neighboring Austronesian languages. A single collector-hunter group,
the tasaday, on the other hand, are Austronesians who have at some point
abandoned their former farming culture. The main languages are Tagalog and Cebuano,
spoken by resp. approximately 15 mio. and approximately 20 million; Tagalog is understood by
many more. Also six of the other languages: ilokano, ilongo,
bikol, waray, kapamganic and pangasi, are spoken by quite large
population groups. The official language is Pilipino, a variant of
Tagalog and English. Pilipino is becoming more and more widespread,
while English is used administratively and in the media. Spanish, formerly
considered an official language, is now of little importance, except by name, as
most Filipinos have both Spanish first and last names. A Spanish-based Creole
language has also been developed,chavacano, spoken by approximately 300,000.
Philippines - religion
approximately 80% of the population belong to the Roman Catholic Church. From 1565
the Spaniards led an extensive mission; Spanish orders became the country's
largest landowners, but also met with resistance, eg the Jesuits were expelled
1769-1859. In 1898, church and state were separated.
In connection with the secession from Spain, an independent Philippine
church was founded in 1902, Iglesia Filipina Independiente, which since 1965 is
in alliance with the Old Catholic Church and today has approximately 10% of its
supporters. About 2% of the population is affiliated with the Protestant
churches, including the local Iglesia ni Kristo.
There are minorities of Muslims, Buddhists and traditional tribal religions.
Philippines - Constitution
The Philippines is a republic with a constitution from 1987. Legislative
power lies with the 24 members of the Senate, elected for six years by direct
election, and in the House of Representatives with 250 members, of which 200 are
elected by direct election for three years. at a time, and 50 are nominated by
the President from candidate lists proposed by non-religious minority groups,
including women, urban poor, young people and small farmers. The executive power
lies with the president, who is elected for six years by direct election, as
well as with the vice president. The President's proposals for members of
government, senior officers, and ambassadors must be approved by a special
appointments committee consisting of 12 senators and 12 members of the House of
Representatives. The President may declare a state of emergency, but Congress
may override such a decree by a majority vote.
Philippines - Economy
The Philippines' economy has traditionally been based on agriculture, but in
the mid - 1970's, President Ferdinand Marcos launched an industrialization plan,
which was largely financed through foreign borrowing. A sharp deterioration in
the balance of payments and capital flight following the assassination of
opposition leader Benigno Aquino in 1983 led to a dramatic development in the
debt situation, and the country had to suspend payments to foreign creditors for
a short period.
Financial support from the International Monetary Fund, IMF, and a debt
restructuring agreement with the creditors were made conditional on a tight
economic policy, and in the coming years, the Philippine community found itself
in a deep crisis. Among other things. unemployment rose to over 15% and about
half of the labor force was underemployed.
To promote economic growth and employment, the 1986 Corazon
Aquino government launched a series of structural reforms, and economic policy
in general was relaxed in agreement with the IMF. Trade was liberalized, the
great sugar and coconut monopolies were dissolved, and a new land reform was
adopted. However, the reform program was only a partial success, not least due
to a slow bureaucratic workflow and strong reluctance on the part of the
Nearly half of the population lives in deep poverty, widespread corruption
and a costly guerrilla fight burden the public budgets and a large debt is
established. In the 1990's, efforts to privatize the economy intensified. It has
succeeded in attracting large foreign investments, and since 1994, foreign banks
have again been allowed to establish themselves in the country.
The country was hit by the Asian crisis in 1998, but slowed down and GDP
growth reached 5% in 2005. A sector with particularly strong growth and an
estimated employment of more than 100,000 (2005) is outsourced telephone
service, with many Filipinos speak English much like Americans. Furthermore,
many work abroad, not least in shipping, and their repatriated income makes an
important contribution to the balance of payments.
The Philippines has due to the more lenient economic policy has
nevertheless not been able to achieve balance in the economic relations with the
rest of the world, and the country is still dependent on support from the IMF
and on ongoing debt restructuring agreements with the creditors. The currency of
the Philippines, the peso, was pegged to the dollar until 1970, but has since
fluctuated freely. Although the government has continuously tried to stabilize
the exchange rate, the peso has periodically fallen in value against the dollar.
Japan, the United States and China are the Philippines' main trading
partners, but the country is actively working for closer regional cooperation
and has been a member of ASEAN since its inception in 1967.
In 2005, Denmark's exports to the Philippines amounted to DKK 472
million. DKK, while imports amounted to 707 mill. kr.
Philippines - social conditions
There are no social schemes for up to 50% of the population living below the
poverty line, typically in the countryside. Thousands of villages lack
opportunities for education and health and, in general, living conditions. The
country remains an oligarchy, where the elite's approximately 10% dispose of 80% of
The elite can, of course, afford to buy all the social services they want,
most often in the United States or Europe. In addition, an emerging middle class
in the urban centers that do not have contacts to clientelism and patronism that
is dominant in the countryside. Many of these have private insurance, and
government employees are members of a public health insurance scheme that
minimally covers pensions, accidents, subsidies for hospital stays, and medical
and medical expenses.
Tax evasion is common and corruption and nepotism abound at all levels of
society. Therefore, the weak state power has few resources and the ordinary
Philippines lives in a vulnerable marginal position.
Philippines - health conditions
Health status and disease spectrum are characterized by social and economic
development and by climatic and geological conditions. Annually recurring
hurricanes and floods as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions cause many
deaths; Tropical diseases such as malaria and bilharziasis as well as
poverty-related diseases such as respiratory infections and diarrhea are still
widespread. The presence of WHOsregional office has been important for
successful health campaigns especially against polio, childhood diseases and
vitamin A deficiency as well as expansion of the primary health system. Child
mortality has halved in the period 1965-95, just as maternal mortality is
significantly lower than in neighboring countries. The use of contraceptives is
low, and population growth has been almost unchanged in the period 1965-95. Air
pollution in Manila as well as other environmental medical conditions are
increasingly affecting health conditions, as are HIV/AIDS and other sexually
transmitted diseases. Also the type of hepatitis that can cause liver cancer, is
widespread but is expected to be controlled when an effective vaccine becomes
cheaper. The Philippines itself has a rapidly growing vaccine industry.
Philippines - military
The armed forces are (2006) at 106,000. The army is at 66,000, the navy
24,000 and the air force 16,000. The reserve is approximately 131,000. All guards are
equipped with older Western, primarily American equipment. The armament is
mainly of types from the 1960's-1970's, some even older. The defenses are
relatively lightly equipped and adapted to the country's geography and
terrain. Their composition shows that the primary task is internal security,
while the country's defense against external enemies is actually a US
responsibility. The security forces have 40,500 at their disposal.
Philippines - mass media
The Philippines formally had full press freedom until
President Marcos imposed a state of emergency in 1972, which entailed harsh
control of the media. When President Aquino took power in 1986, she therefore
committed herself to respecting freedom of the press, but an emergency law from
1989 authorizes the President to temporarily take control of the media that
threaten national interests.
The majority of newspapers and radio and television stations are owned by a
few wealthy families and business groups. A partial exception is the Catholic
Church's publications and network of radio stations as well as the Catholic
shortwave station Radio Veritas Asia, which broadcasts in 14 languages.
The number of newspapers has quadrupled since Marcos' fall, but the total
circulation is unchanged. The most important newspapers are published in Manila,
and the most influential is the Philippine Daily Inquirer (1985) with a
circulation of 250,000 (2006). A few hundred newspapers are published from the
provincial capitals. The national news agency PNA (Philippines News Agency,
1973) is state-owned.
Philippines - architecture and art
The Philippines does not have one national art tradition, but many more or
less local traditions, which have been created under the influence of
China, Malaysia, Spain and the United States. Some of the original
traditions are still alive. In northern Luzon, the Iguuga people
in particular are known for their often religious wooden sculptures, such as bulol,
which are human-like figures that are placed in pairs in the storehouses and are
thought to protect the rice. Also Muslim people in the Sulu Islands and on
Mindanao are wood carvers, but in a more flourishing style, which is of no
religious significance. A common motif is the naga, the dragon,
another sari manok, a bird figure. In Mindanaoin addition,
metalwork is made mainly in brass and sometimes with patterns inlaid in
silver. For the large Christian population, religious art was long dominant. The
missionaries brought along saint figures, who were imitated by anonymous
Filipino artists; the same was true of altarpieces that were cut in relief and
The church building, which began shortly after the arrival of the Spaniards,
followed the alternating Spanish style of building, which was gradually added to
local features; churches with combined bell and lookout towers and associated
monasteries were erected at central squares. Secular buildings were also built
in a partly Latin American pattern. With the Americans, especially to official
buildings came American-style architecture. After independence, large, modern
business districts and prestigious buildings were built, especially in
Manila. Outside the cities, the original building custom is still used,
ie. houses of wood or knocked out pipes, which are most often built on piles.
Secular painters, who especially cultivated local scenery, began to emerge in
the early 1800's. Damian Domingo (d. 1830), who mainly painted watercolors, was
one of the earliest. He opened an art school in 1815; later the government
founded an art academy. In the late 1800's. worked several significant painters,
such as Félix Hidalgo (1855-1913) and Juan Luna (1857-99), who both spent most
of their lives in Europe, where they received the essential part of their
education and became highly recognized. They both follow Western painting
tradition, but often use subjects from Filipino history.
In the early 1900-t. Fernando Amorsolo (1892-1972) painted motifs from
popular life, while others painted under the influence of French
Impressionism. After World War II, there has been a development in Philippine
painting towards neorealism and a more abstract style.
Philippines - literature
The First Printed Book, Doctrina Christiana (1593), is a bilingual
text: Tagalog - Spanish. Due to strict censorship, only religious literature as
well as dictionaries and grammars were printed until the first secular works
were published in the 1830's. European medieval romances about the struggle of
Christian knights against the Moors became role models for new literary
genres. Both narratives in verses called corrido (eight-foot verse)
and awit (twelve-foot verse) as well as the theatrical form comedy or moromoro were
about kingdoms invaded by Muslims, which are eventually conquered by Christian
heroes. Florante and Laura(1838, Florante and Laura), a tale written in
the awit verse by Francisco Baltazar, better known as Balagtas
(1788-1862), is considered a masterpiece in Tagalog literature. A well-known
example of a comedy is Don Gonzalo de Cordoba (1831) by
Anselmo Fjardo. Payson is tales of the life of Christ that focus on his
suffering, crucifixion, and resurrection. The most famous payson was written in
1704 by Don Gaspar Aquino de Belen and was the first epic poem in
Tagalog. Furthermore, Rules of Good Conduct, also modeled on Spanish,
were popular. For example, Lagda (1734) is considered a milestone in
Cebuano literature because of its linguistic qualities.
The most famous and influential Filipino novels, Noli me Tangere (Touch
Me Not, 1887) and El Filibusterismo (The Subversion,
1891), were both written in Spanish and published in Madrid by the patriot and
martyr José Rizal. Rizal's novels are highly anti-clerical and contain violent
condemnations of the unjust social and political conditions in the Philippines
under Spanish rule. Although Spanish after 1900 was quickly replaced by English,
it remained a literary language for the first thirty years of the 1900's.
Literature in the local languages
Zarzuela, a kind of operetta that originated in Spain, had a
renaissance in the late 1800's. and was in the first two decades of this century
used for political and social satire wrapped in love stories. The first novel in
Tagalog was Gabriel Beato Francisco's Cababalaghan ni P. Brava (1899). Most
famous, however, is Lope K. Santos' novel Banaag at Sikat (1906, The
Rays of Dawn), which is influenced by socialist ideas; Marcelino
Crisologos Mining weno Ayat ti Cararua (1914, Spiritual Love) written
in ilocano and inspired by Freud; Faustino Aguilars Ang Lihim ng Isang Puto(1927,
The Secret of the Cake), combining romantic love with social
indignation; Antonio G. Sempio's social realist novel Punyal na Ginto (1933,
The Golden Knife); Lazaro Francisco's novel about the Japanese occupation, Sugat
ng Alaala (1949, A Wound to Remember). Amado V. Hernandez is especially
famous for the poem Bayang Malaya (1969, A Free People).
The English-language literature
The English-language literature originated from college and university
environments. It was secular and influenced by American writers and American
values and views. Until 1940, it was a "youthful literature" written by and
for young people. A generational gap between a parent generation that preferred
Spanish and a younger generation that preferred English is a theme that Nick
Joaquin addresses in his play A Portrait of the Artist as Filipino (1940). After
World War II, an increasing number of novels and short stories have been
published in Tagalog, although English-language literature is still dominant. F.
Sionil José's novel Mass (1984) has been translated into Danish (Daggry,