Macedonia - Education
The educational situation is characterized by national minorities, which are
guaranteed by the Constitution to teach in their mother tongue. In addition to
the Macedonian schools, there are Albanian- and Serbian-language schools.
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The public school system is free and compulsory for 7-15 year olds. It
includes voluntary children's institutions that are only applied for by a few,
and an eight-year primary school. approximately 80% (1995) continue their education
partly in four-year general theoretical, vocational and artistic educations,
partly in shorter vocational educations.
There are two public universities in resp. Skopje and Bitola, where only
Macedonian is taught. The Albanian minority established an Albanian-language
university in Tetovo in 1994, but it has not been recognized by the authorities.
OFFICIAL NAME: Severna Makedonija
CAPITAL CITY: Skopje
POPULATION: 2,050,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 25,713 km²
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish, Romani, others
RELIGION: Macedonian Orthodox 67%, Muslims 30%, others 3%
CURRENCY CODE: MKD
ENGLISH NAME: North Macedonia, Republic of North Macedonia
POPULATION COMPOSITION: Macedonians 67%, Albanians 23%, Turks 4%, Gypsies 2%, Serbs 2%, others 2%
GDP PER residents: 1889 $ (2007)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 71 years, women 76 years (2007)
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.796
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 66
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .mk
Macedonia, Republic of the Balkans, established in 1992 after the dissolution
of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United
Nations in 1993 under the name Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM),
a term dictated by neighboring Greece. The poor, mountainous inland state also
shares borders with Albania, Kosovo, Serbia and Bulgaria. The population is
extremely composed of Macedonian majority and a large Albanian minority. In
addition to other minorities, there are e.g. refugees from the former Serbian
province of Kosovo. Traffic between Central Europe and the Aegean Sea has passed
through the area for centuries.
Macedonia - Mass media
The media in Macedonia is relatively free and there is no state censorship,
but state influence still characterizes the newspaper market. The Republic's
largest and most influential daily newspaper is Dnevnik, grdl 1996 as an
independent newspaper, circulation approximately 50,000 (2005), while Macedonia's
oldest newspaper, the state-subsidized Nova Makedonija, is only published in a
very small circulation.
In the field of radio and television, developments since 1991 have been
marked by a number of initiatives. The state-run Makedonska Radio-Televizija
(MRT) has three radio and three television channels as well as satellite
channels. In addition, there are several private stations, of which the main TV
station is A1.
Macedonia - literature
A Macedonian national literature first appeared during World War II, but all
the way back in the 800's. St. Clement (d. 916) founded a religious and literary
tradition in Ohrid that can be seen as the starting point for both Bulgarian and
Macedonian literature. During the 500-year-long Turkish occupation of the
Balkans, cultural activity was largely ruled out, and only during the Romantic
period were individual attempts at a national and cultural Macedonian rebirth
seen, which were naturally based on folk poetry. Thus, in 1861, the brothers
Konstantin (1830-62) and Dimitar Miladinov (1810-62) published in Zagreb a
collection of folk songs from Macedonia. In interwar Yugoslavia, Macedonia was
completely dominated by Serbia, and Macedonian language and literature had no
means of subsistence.
Kočo Racin's party poem from 1939 became the beginning of modern Macedonian
literature. In 1944, a standard Macedonian language was codified, primarily
thanks to the linguist and poet Blaže Koneski. The first years were dominated by
poetry. Slavko Janevski's Village Behind the Seven Ashes (1952) is
considered the first Macedonian novel. Later in the 1950's, the drama also came
into being. With the opening to the West, Macedonian literature also received
important impulses, so that virtually all the genres we know in the West are
represented. In Danish there are Macedonian folk songs (1983), The
petrified Orpheus : three Macedonian poets (1985).
Macedonia - music
In the Middle Ages, music life was dominated by Byzantine church singing,
from around 900 with center in Ohrid. Ottoman invasion of the Balkans in the
late 1300's. paralyzed Macedonian culture until around 1900, when a new
development began with the emphasis on choral music, after 1945 also with other
forms of composition of European accent. Skopje got an opera stage in 1947 and a
philharmonic orchestra in 1949. Folk music is richly composed; ancient village
traditions still thrive with ritual songs and chain dances. The predominantly
lyrical songs are performed solo or polyphonic. Characteristic of dance music
are irregularly composed rhythms, eg 5/8, 7/8 and 9/8. In the cities arose under
Turkish influence in the 1700's. a special style with oriental instruments and