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Education in Nigeria

Nigeria - education

Nigeria Education, The rapidly growing population and its complex ethnic composition present the education system with great difficulties, which are compounded by the fact that Nigeria's northern areas have a Muslim educational tradition while the southern ones are westernized. Illiteracy is widespread, for men approximately 25% and for women approximately 40% (2003). There is no school or teaching obligation.

Education in Nigeria

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In the urban areas, there are private payment pre-schools for 3-5-year-olds before the six-year free elementary school, which is sought by almost 90% (1994).

After a three-year superstructure, either a general three-year education or a vocational training of half to three years, which together apply for approximately 30% (1994). The upper secondary education is not free.

In contrast, it is public higher education that takes place at the country's 30 universities or 26 other higher education institutions (1996).

Nigeria, (derived from Lat. Niger 'Black'), Republic of West Africa, Former British Colony. The British practiced an indirect regime, which involved only limited changes to the original systems of society. There are hundreds of different ethnic groups, and the country's development has been marked by great cultural, social and economic differences. Nigeria is traditionally an agricultural country, but since the 1970's, crude oil production and export has been the mainstay of the economy. Nigeria has 1.5% of the world's oil reserves, which are exploited at a high and increasing rate. As economic and population heavyweights, Nigeria plays an important role throughout the continent's economic and political development.

Nigeria - religion

Nigeria - religion

Nigeria - Religion, Islam has existed in Nigeria since the 1200's, but became widespread in the 1800's and 1900's. In 2006, approximately 50% of the population is Muslim. The Islamic Sufi fraternities have great influence and are often in conflict with radical Islamist movements. Christianity is dominant in southern Nigeria, where it was introduced in the 1500's. approximately 40% of the population are Catholics or Protestants or belong to local Nigerian denominations. Since the 1980's, there have been serious clashes between Muslims and Christians. A minority in the population practices the traditional religions, where ancestors and spirits play a major role.

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Nigeria - Constitution

Nigeria - Constitution, the Constitution of the Republic is from 1999. The President is both Head of State and Government and is elected by universal suffrage for a four-year term; can be re-elected once. In order to be elected, the candidate must obtain a majority of the total number of votes and at least one quarter of the votes in at least one third of the federal states. The president nominates a vice president and a government that must have Senate approval.

The legislative power lies with a parliament with two chambers. Members are elected by universal suffrage for four years. The lower house has 360 members and the upper house has 109 members (three from each state plus one from Abuja). In each of the 36 states, there is a governor and a parliament, both equally elected for four years.

Nigeria - Economy

Nigeria - Economy As Nigeria became independent, agriculture was the dominant occupation, but the emergence of the oil industry in the late 1960's led to a rapid and radical change in the structure of society. The high oil prices in the mid-1970's led the government, as in many OPEC's countries, in its development program, focused largely solely on the oil industry, which soon accounted for almost all of the country's export revenue, while the agriculture and food industries were disregarded. Nigeria thereby became a victim of what was later described as the "resource bandwidth", as the large oil revenues also led to public overspending and borrowing as well as an explosive rise in the black economy and corruption (in the mid-1990's, the country was considered the most corrupt in the world; it has since overtaken Bangladesh). An incipient nationalist-oriented economic policy resulted in, among other things, in that a large number of foreign companies were brought under local ownership. The oil adventure ended abruptly when oil prices dropped sharply in the early 1980's. A severe economic crisis occurred and Nigeria had to pray The International Monetary Fund, the IMF, and the World Bank on financial support to meet its debt obligations on foreign debt. The aid was granted against Nigeria devalued its overvalued currency, naira, and implemented a number of price reforms.

However, the relationship with creditors deteriorated markedly in the early 1990's, with the government pursuing an introverted economic policy, resulting in large budget deficits and adjustments to the economy. The IMF would not enter into new agreements with Nigeria, and the bad relations with the outside world culminated in 1995, when the country's obvious problems in respecting human rights led to the exclusion from the Commonwealth. At the same time, the EU tightened the ongoing sanctions on Nigeria, which includes a total arms embargo and EU assistance to Nigeria was suspended with the exception of poverty, human rights and democracy oriented activities. Sanctions policy seems to have borne fruit as Nigeria began a number of economic reforms in 1995-96, such as This includes legalization of the former black foreign exchange market (where the exchange rate far better reflects the market value of the naira than the official exchange rate), foreigners' right to acquire businesses in the country and a more liberal trade policy. Furthermore, a clear tightening of economic policy occurred after inflation reached around 75% in 1995, despite weak economic growth of only 1% on average in the previous decade. Then inflation dropped to around 20%,

From 2003, following some hesitation and under the influence of the IMF, a number of economic reforms have been implemented in Nigeria, including liberalization and privatization in the oil sector. In 2005, agreements were signed with the Paris Club (of rich creditor countries) a very substantial debt relief program that reduced the external debt by more than 2/3. The proceeds from the high oil prices enabled the settlement of other debt in 2006.

Nigeria had massive trade and current account surpluses in 2005 and has announced that it wants to combat widespread poverty; in the world's 12th largest oil producer (2004) lives 80 million. residents below the poverty line, and oil revenues have so far been a source of regional and ethnic conflicts rather than of broad economic development. Nigeria's most important export market is the United States, which reduced 49% of Nigeria's exports in 2005. Imports are mainly supplied by China, the United Kingdom and the United States. Thus, while the other African countries are not of great economic importance to Nigeria, the country has been active in building the economic community of the West African states, which was established in 1975 and at some point seeks to develop into a true common market.

In 2005, Denmark's exports to Nigeria totaled DKK 589 million. Imports there from were only DKK 4 million. kr.

Nigeria - social conditions

Nigeria - social conditions, Despite oil revenues, Nigeria is lower on the UN Human Development Index than the average of African countries. Nearly 55% of the population has income below the poverty line, and in rural areas the proportion is over 63%. For many years public spending on health and education has been declining. In 2004, the annual public health expenditure per $ 50 per capita against $ 110 in Ivory Coast and $ 700 in South Africa.

Although child mortality has been declining, it is still high by African standards. 198 of 1000 newborn children die before the age of five. The education system has deteriorated for more than 20 years, and in 2004, education spending accounted for only about 1% of the country's gross national income. The African average is 4-5%. In recent years, the government has increased its efforts in the field of education, among other things, and the goal is free education for all, but the task is huge. It also has a significant gender dimension. Far fewer girls than boys come to school.

Nigeria - Health Conditions

Nigeria - Health Conditions, Several basic health indicators show a marked improvement since independence, but the improvement occurred especially in the first years after 1970. Infant mortality is 73 ‰, which is low compared to most other sub-Saharan Africa countries, but high compared to other developing countries. Mortality under five years is 141 ‰ and life expectancy at birth is 47 years. In general, these figures are uncertain. For children under five, the most common causes of death are malaria, diarrhea, acute respiratory tract infections and measles. Illness and deficient nutrition create a vicious circle that underlies a very large proportion of child deaths.

The pattern of disease is characterized by infections and parasitic diseases, often transmitted by mosquitoes or other animals. Malaria is the most prevalent and serious of these diseases; It is estimated that half the population has at least one acute case of malaria per year. Other widespread diseases include filariasis in the form of river blindness, guinea worms, sleeping sickness, carhariosis and yellow fever. Acute respiratory tract infections are the most frequent cause of health care inquiries, and in northern Nigeria, meningitis is endemic. Lack of clean drinking water causes diarrheal diseases, including cholera, and intestinal worms. Trachoma and Vitamin A deficiency is the cause of blindness.

There are about 5900 residents per doctor, which is significantly better coverage than in most sub-Saharan African countries, and 72% of the population lives less than an hour's journey from a health clinic. Especially outside the major cities, however, there is a large shortage of staff, medicines and equipment. In the larger cities, there are private practitioners for the wealthy of the population. approximately 35% of primary health care clinics are run by private, church organizations.

Nigeria - mass media

Nigeria - mass media, Nigeria is characterized by a thriving and critical press, often referred to as the most exciting and vibrant in sub-Saharan Africa. There are more than 100 different newspapers and magazines, both in English and local languages, and there are a multitude of radio and television stations. Each of Nigeria's 36 states has its own radio station and most also have television stations. In 2005, a total of 280 licenses were issued to private broadcasters. Overall media coverage is better than in most sub-Saharan countries, and the debate is both comprehensive and critical.

The print media is central to the social debate and represents many different interests, including ethnic minority interests. However, it is especially the radio that reaches all corners of society, and especially in the countryside, radio is the crucial media, while television remains the most dominant in the cities.

There is relatively much press freedom after Nigeria has returned to civilian rule. However, some of the restrictions that restricted the freedom of the press under the military dictatorship remained in force, and there have also been a number of examples of imprisonment by journalists and editors even after the reinstatement of democracy.

Nigeria - Literature

Nigeria - Literature, The literary traditions in Nigeria's main language range from religious and historical Hausa chronicles to the didactic animal fables of the residents and proverbs and proverbs in Yoruba, which unite the real life with the mythological. In the Hausa region to the north, from the end of 1900-t. fought a battle between the traditional authorities, who preferred a literature written in Arabic letters, the so-called ajamiliterature, and colonists, such as using Bible translations fought for the Latin alphabet. English had no influence on literature in the north, whereas English-language literature largely outperformed the ibol literature in the eastern region as early as the 1950's. Pita Nwana (1881-1968), who wrote her popular novel Omenuko (1933) on ibo, was the forerunner of Chinua Achebe's English-language writing, which began with the widely acclaimed novel on African modernity, Things Fall Apart (1958, when everything falls from each other, 1986). Like Flora Nwapa, whose protagonists are usually women, the author expressed the open and individualistic culture of the residents. Cyprian Ekwensis popular authorship has grown out of the versatile market literature published in the large commercial city of Onitsha.

Yoruba literature is more diverse and competitive. In The Forest of the Thousand Demons: A Hunter's Story (1938), translated by Wole Soyinka into English 1967, DO Fagunwa (c. 1903-63) depicts the forested forest that is central to Yoruba cosmology and which again appears in Soyinka's play A Dance of the Forests, performed in 1960 in connection with Nigeria's independence celebrations. Amos Tutuola's groundbreaking and witty The Palm-Wine Drinkard (1952), along with Cyprian Ekwensi's tales and Gabriel Okaras (b. 1921) The Voice(1964) helped to give literary status to a particularly flexible and vibrant form of West African English, which later paved the way for the use of written pidgin.

Many Nigerian poets found with other African literatures in the journal Black Orpheus, published in Lagos from 1957. Here, four Canzones were printed by Christopher Okigbo, and after his death as an officer in the Biafra Army during the Nigerian Civil War, his surviving poems were published here. One of the first editors was JP Clark (Clark-Bekederemo), poet and professor, who spent fifteen years collecting and translating a giant epic from his people, ijaw, in the Niger Delta; The Ozidi Saga (1977) embarrasses and cries for father murder, failure and revenge. Wole Soyinka edited a period of Black Orpheus and got his first poems published here.

After the Civil War, which ended in 1970, Chinua Achebe started the literary magazine Okike, which became important for a new generation of poets. The war criss-crossed the young nation. No one was untouched, and the disaster led to great literary productivity. Hundreds of titles include: JP Clark: Casualties: Poems 1966-68 (1970); Elechi Amadis (1934-2016) War Diary Sunset in Biafra (1973); Chinua Achebe: Girls at War and Other Stories (1972); Cyprian Ekwensi: Divided We Stand (1980); Flora Nwapa: Wives at War and Other Stories (1980); Destination Biafra (1982) by the very prolific Buchi Emecheta;Songs in a Time of War (1985) and Sozaboy: A Novel in Rotten English (1985) about an ordinary soldier's experiences, written on the pidgin of one of Nigeria's great writers, Ken Saro-Wiwa, who, as an environmental activist, was executed by the military regime after a political trial.

Although Nigeria is one of the few African countries to have a significant publishing business and has had an open press, some of the country's poets and intellectuals have tended to settle abroad, especially in the UK. This applies to the novelist Buchi Emecheta, the poet Femi Oyebode (b. 1954), known for Forest of Transformations (1991), and Ben Okri. At Okri is also cityscapes animated and peopled with spiritual children in The Famished Road (1991 since. Hunger way, 1993) and the moving novel about young love in Lagos, Dangerous Love (1996, then. Dangerous Love, 1997).

Political persecution is widespread in Nigeria and the scrutiny of writers and journalists was sharply sharpened after the military dictatorship canceled the presidential elections in 1993. However, the death of General Abacha in 1998 has paved the way for some openness. The nation's Nobel laureate in literature, Wole Soyinka, is one of the sharpest critics of the range of authoritarian regimes in Nigeria. During the Civil War he sat in prison for two years and after writing his famous prison diary, The Man Died (1972, when the man died, 1979), he went into exile. Despite these conditions, Nigeria is a literary and cultural giant in Africa. No other African nation has so many writers, publishers, newspapers, magazines and such a large audience. Internationally, writers such as Adaobi Tricia Nwaubani (b. 1976) and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie have made a strong mark in recent years. As in other countries, television and video give people dramatic and musical genres new life and new power.

Nigeria - theater

Nigeria - theater, In Nigeria developed early, probably as early as the 1400's, so-called traditional theater forms with ingredients such as mask play, puppet theater, dance and music, often with greater emphasis on the spectacular than on the verbal. They are played today by amateurs as well as professional troops. The professionals have also developed modern touring theater groups as well as television theater in African languages. Aesthetics, religion and social satire are important elements in the traditional, but also in the modern university-based, English-language theater. Only the universities have separate theater buildings, and here students and professionals collaborate. State-supported theater does not exist in the country.

Nigeria - music

Nigeria - music, Nigeria's music reflects the country's great diversity in culture and language. The northern area is heavily influenced by the music of Muslim culture in terms of modes, sound and instruments. Nigerian popular music is made up of high life and yorubastilen juju as well as the newer Fuji, based on traditional forms. In one class, afro-beat musician Fela Kuti (1938-97) stands with his fusion of jazz, soul and African music.

 
 
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