Niger - education
Niger - education, The education system in Niger has since the independence
in 1960, when just 5% of all children went to school, greatly expanded, so that
education, which is free and compulsory for 7-15 year olds, is now followed by
almost 30% (1992). Illiteracy in the adult population is still very high: 71%
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After the six-year elementary school, two three-year levels include
comprehensive education, teacher training and technical vocational
education. Further education takes place at the University of Niamey; a Muslim
university was established in Say in 1987.
ETYMOLOGY: The word Niger comes from lat. niger ‘black’.
OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of Niger
CAPITAL CITY: Niamey
POPULATION: 18,000,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 1,300,000 km²
OFFICIAL/OFFICIAL LANGUAGES: French, hausa, djerma and approximately 20 other African languages
RELIGION: Muslims 89%, natives religions 11%
CURRENCY: CFA franc
CURRENCY CODE: XOF
ENGLISH NAME: Niger
POPULATION COMPOSITION: hausa 53%, songhai 21%, tuareg 10%, fulani 10%, kanuri 4%, other 2%
GDP PER CAPITA INH.: $ 399 (2011)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 54 years, women 56 years (2015)
LIVING CONDITIONS INDEX, HDI: 0337
LIVING CONDITIONS INDEX, POSITION: 187
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .ne
Niger, Republic and Inland State of West Africa, one of the world's poorest
countries. The southern part of the country lies in the dry Sahel belt, while
the northern two-thirds are desert and bush steppe. The economy is based on
cattle breeding and farming; there is also the export of uranium. In the 1980's
and 1990's, Niger's economy was hit by both drought and falling mineral
prices. Large migrations related to the drought have led to conflicts between
different ethnic groups.
Niger - religion
Niger - religion, Islam has existed in Niger since the 1400's, but was
seriously spread in the 1800's. In the 1990's, approximately 90% of the population are
Muslims, while 5% are Christians and 5% practice traditional religions. Many
Muslims practice non-Islamic traditions such as spirit occupation, which also
plays a major role in traditional religions.
Niger - Constitution
Niger Constitution, the Constitution of the Republic is from 1999 and adopted
after a referendum. It guarantees a multi-party system and aims at a balance of
power between the president, government and legislative power.
The legislative power lies with the 113 members of the National Assembly, who
are elected by universal suffrage for five years. The president has the
executive power; he is head of state and is also elected for five years in
general elections. The president appoints the prime minister who, under his
supervision, heads the government and implements the adopted policy. The prime
minister is accountable to parliament, which can remove him by a vote of no
confidence. There are plans to give local and regional authorities greater
autonomy, and since the late 1990's, efforts have been made to realize them.
By a controversial referendum in 2009, the constitution was amended to allow
the president to continue beyond the previous two years.
Niger - mass media
Niger - mass media, Even after African conditions, mass media is very little
prevalent in Niger. However, when the freedom of the press was introduced in
1990-91, this meant that the government newspaper Sahel got competition from
other magazines in both French and Hausa. A press law curtailed freedom in 1997
and, although the trend has since been more positive, the media situation is
marked by considerable government scrutiny, both because the radio due to
poverty, long distances and illiteracy is the dominant media, and because the
state, despite some private radio stations, largely controls the radio medium
via the state radio and television station Le Sahel.
Niger movie, Ethnographer Jean Rouch made documentary films in Mali and Niger
in the 1950's. Moustapha Alassane (b. 1942) debuted in 1962 and succeeded with
the western parody Le Retour d'un adventures (1966), the social satire FVVA:
Femme, villa, voiture, argent (1972) and Toula ou le génie des eaux (1974,
Nigerian-West German co-production) on the drought-stricken Sahel. Oumarou Ganda
(1935-81) was an actor in Jean Rouch's Moi un noir (1959) and later
became a director; his love tragedy Le Wazzou polygamous (1971) won the
1972 first prize at FESPACO, and shortly before his death came L'Exile (1980),
a beautiful moral fable.
Since 1980, film production in Niger has almost stopped. Djingareye Maïga (b.
1939), who starred in Alassane's films and has himself directed L'Étoile
noire (1976), Nuages noirs (1979), Aube noire (1983)
and Miroir noir (1996), all social realist melodramas, is a of the very
few remaining instructors. He has also worked as a photographer and actor in
many West African films.