Libya - education
The school system in Libya is free and apart from Koranic schools public with
compulsory schooling for 6-15 year olds. Teaching takes place mainly in
gender-segregated classes. Curricula are designed centrally, and special
emphasis is placed on vocational education. It is a goal to reduce illiteracy,
which includes approximately 17% of all adults (2003), as well as getting more girls
to continue their education.
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The education system comprises a six-year primary school, followed by
postgraduate education, which consists of two three-year levels divided into a
general line and a vocational education line. In addition, there is a four-year
line that trains teachers for primary school. Further education takes place at
the country's five universities and other higher education institutions.
OFFICIAL NAME: Dawlat Libya
CAPITAL CITY: Tripoli
POPULATION: 6,200,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 1,760,000 km²
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): Arabic, few Berber languages
RELIGION: Sunni Muslims 97%, others 3%
CURRENCY CODE: SOUND
ENGLISH NAME: Libya
POPULATION COMPOSITION: Arabs 90%, Berbers 5%, others 5%
GDP PER residents: $ 11,046 (2013)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 74 years, women 78 years (2014)
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.784
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 55
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .shelter
Libya, Republic of North Africa between Tunisia and Egypt. Most of the
country is desert and largely uninhabited. The narrow coastal zone towards the
Mediterranean accommodates almost the entire population and has traditionally
had close connections to the rest of the Mediterranean culture.
Under the leadership of Colonel Gaddafi, the country experienced from 1969
an increasing isolation from the international community, on the basis of
suspicions that Libyan agents were behind terrorist acts abroad; from 2003,
however, a normalization of relations began. A number of oil fields contain
approximately 3% of the world's known oil reserves, and Libya's economy is completely
dominated by oil exports.
Gaddafi was overthrown and killed in 2011 after a civil war in which NATO
warplanes sided with the rebels, but tensions between nationalists and Islamists
sparked a new civil war in 2014.
Libya - Constitution
Libya is an Islamic, socialist state. There is no real constitution, but the
country's government is based on directives on direct democracy from
Gaddafi's Green Paper.. The stated intention is to create the conditions for as
large a popular participation as possible through a People's Congress of 3000
members, which is based on local people's congresses and committees, which are
composed of representatives from all kinds of organizations. No elections are
held and the Arab Socialist Federation (ASU) is the only political party. The
People's Congress elects a general secretary who is also the head of state and
is served by a general secretariat that functions as a kind of legislative
assembly. The executive power officially lies with a people's committee, whose
members replace the pre-revolutionary ministers. Libya's real political power
is Gaddafi, who does not hold an official post but holds the title of Leader
of the Revolution.
Libya - economy
The majority of the economy, including foreign companies,
was nationalized after the military coup in 1969, and a number of development
plans became guidelines for economic policy. One of the main goals was to create
a broader production structure to make the country less dependent on the oil
sector. Falling oil prices in the 1980's and, above all, US and UN sanctions
against the country, introduced in resp. 1978 and 1992, meant that economic
policy, in effect, had to be geared towards ensuring the survival of the
economy. The oil sector continued to be the country's economic base, but in
order to promote economic growth, the government has since 1988 allowed private
enterprise in, among other things, Trade and service.
UN sanctions were lifted in 1999, gradually followed by the normalization of
relations with the United States, and since 2003 Libya has launched a
market-oriented reform program that also opens up the activities of foreign oil
companies; in 2005, the first oil concessions were auctioned off. However, the
state continues to control the economy to a large extent through control of
prices, etc. and in particular the large oil-financed public sector, which runs
a broad education and health program. In the context of housing and food
subsidies, this has placed infant mortality as the lowest on the continent and
life expectancy as the second longest (after Tunisia). Following a stagnation in
2001-02, economic growth is again strong (8.5% in 2005), helped by high oil
Libya has traditionally had large trade surpluses. Although the balance of
payments has periodically shown deficits because guest workers and foreign
companies (which, despite sanctions and nationalizations still operate in the
oil sector) send significant sums out of the country, Libya has never built up a
large foreign debt. The country has applied for membership of the WTO and is
trying, by financial means, to play an active role in big politics.
Oil dependence has had a major impact on exchange rate policy, with the dinar
from 1973 to 1986 pegged to the dollar and then to the World Bank's currency
basket. However, weak economic developments and rising inflation have led to
several depreciations of the currency in the 1990's.
Libya's main trading partners are Italy, Germany and Spain, while trade with
its Arab neighbors is of little importance. Denmark's exports to Libya in 2005
amounted to DKK 226 million. DKK, and imports of 76 mill. kr.
Libya - military
The peacekeeping force of the armed forces is (2006) 76,000, of which
approximately half conscripts with 1 to 2 years of service. The army is at 45,000, the
navy at 8,000 and the air force at 23,000. The reserve, "Folkemilitsen", is
40,000 men. All three defenses are equipped with a mix of older and newer Soviet
as well as newer French and other Western-produced equipment. The Army is only
capable of manning part of its very extensive stockpile. The fleet is a balanced
composite coastal fleet. The Air Force is relatively very strong. It is doubtful
whether the impressive size of the country's armed forces is matched by a
reasonable quality. The armed forces are likely to be seen to a significant
extent as the regime's symbol of prestige. After the bombing of a Pan Amthe
jumbo jet over Lockerbie in 1988, Libya from 1992 was denied access to advanced
weapons until the extradition of the suspects in 2000. In 1989, Libya was also
responsible for the bombing of a DC-10 from UTA but from 2004 Libya paid
compensation to the survivors. This has paved the way for Libya to become the
first non-French user of the Rafale fighter jet.
In 1973, Libyan fighter jets from Egyptian bases participated in the October
In 1977, thousands of Libyans wanted to march to Cairo to protest Egypt's
rapprochement with Israel, but they were stopped at the border. This escalated
into border disputes between the armed forces of Egypt and Libya with airstrikes
and armor for four days.
In 1978-79, Tanzania invaded Uganda to overthrow Uganda's dictator Idi
Amin. Muammar Gaddafi had sent 2,000-3,000 Libyan troops with heavy weapons to
help, but they came to stand for the brunt of the resistance. Idi Amin fled to
In the 1980's, Libya's armed forces came into conflict with the great powers
the United States and France. The United States does not recognize Libyan
supremacy over the Gulf of Sidra and in 1981 and 1989 there were fighting
between US naval forces and Libya. In 1986, the Americans bombed Tripoli
(Operation El Dorado Canyon) in retaliation for a suspected bombing in
Berlin. In Operation Épervier (1986), French and Chadian forces pushed Libyan
forces out of northern Chad culminating in the 1987 Toyota War.
Libya today claims 32,000 km2 of south-eastern Algeria and 25,000
km2 in the Tommo region of Niger. In addition, Chadian rebel groups
from the Aozou region have training camps in southern Libya.
Libya - mass media
All mass media were tightly controlled by the government, and Gaddafi's Green
Book was Libya's press law. The distribution of the printed press is very small,
and only quite a few dailies are published. The official daily newspaper,
Al-Fajr al-Jadid (New Dawn), is published by the State News Agency Jamahiriya
News Agency (Jana) and was founded in 1969.
Other newspapers and magazines are also affiliated with the government or the
trade union movement. Radio began broadcasting in 1957, television in 1968.
Radio has been a popular medium for decades; video is also widespread, and in
the 1990's, television also began to gain ground. Since 1999, contact with the
outside world has increased, e.g. with beginning access to internet and