Kyrgyzstan - education
Education in Kyrgyzstan is public and free, and there is compulsory schooling
for ten years from the seventh year of the students. Illiteracy was therefore
not a major problem in the past, but in recent years there has been a tendency
for approximately 10% do not complete primary school for social reasons (1997).
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The four-year primary school is followed by a superstructure with two levels
that lasts resp. four and three years. The last level has both general and
Further education can take place at the University of Bishkek, at a
polytechnic institute or at other higher education institutions. The Kyrgyz
language has since independence taken on a more prominent role in teaching
OFFICIAL NAME: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
CAPITAL CITY: Bishkek
POPULATION: 5,210,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 198,500 km²
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): Kyrgyz, Russian, Uzbek, Ukrainian, German, others
RELIGION: Muslims 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, others 5%
CURRENCY CODE: KGS
ENGLISH NAME: Kyrgyzstan
POPULATION COMPOSITION: Kyrgyz 52%, Russians 18%, Uzbeks 13%, Ukrainians 3%, Germans 2%, others 12%
GDP PER residents: 319 $ (2007)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 64 years, women 72 years (2007)
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.705
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 110
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .kg
Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyzstan, former Soviet republic and since 1991
independent republic of Central Asia and member of the CIS (Association of
Independent States). Like other post-Soviet states, Kyrgyzstan has seen a sharp
decline in production and living standards since independence. Although the
Constitution is based on formal rules, the political decision-making process is
strongly marked by tribal and clan networks and by contradictions between the
populations of the North and the South.
Kyrgyzstan - literature
As in the rest of Central Asia, Kyrgyz poetry has for centuries unfolded
through oral traditions, ie. proverbs and myths as well as lamentations,
shepherd songs and heroic quatrains performed by highly respected akynes ('bards').
The heroic quatrain Manas is Kyrgyzstan's national epic, often
referred to as the "Iliad from the steppe". It includes approximately half a
million. verses and was first written down in its entirety in the late 1800-t.
The incorporation into the Russian Empire was met with opposition from
tradition-bound and Muslim-minded Akynes such as Moldo Kulytj
(1866-1917). Others were seized by the Russian revolutionary ideas, notably
Toktogul Satylganov (1864-1933). As one of the first to write his poems in the
new written language, he became one of the founders of Kyrgyz Soviet literature.
Barpy Alykulov (1884-1949) wrote poetry about the suppression of nomadic
culture by e.g. the women. Moldogasy Tokabaev (b. 1905) laid the groundwork for
the Kyrgyz drama in 1924 with the play The Unhappy Kakej. Aaly
Tokombayev (1904-88) contributed to the development of Kyrgyz prose art,
with the short story collection The Wounded Heart (1941).
Chingiz Ajtmatov has achieved the greatest international impact. Through his
writing, the world has gained a unique insight into the Kyrgyz cultural values
and their sad degradation. In the post-Soviet debate, however, some have
argued that Ajtmatov, as a Russian-language writer, cannot be considered truly