Iraq - Education
The school system is public and includes six years of compulsory primary
education and a postgraduate education divided into two levels of three years
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In primary school, there is a promotion test after each school year. The
course ends with an exam, which gives access to a two-part postgraduate
education, where each level ends with a public exam. The teaching is the last
two years divided into two lines, a humanities and a science. The final exam
here gives access to higher education, which can be completed at ten
universities and approximately 25 higher education institutions and is built according
to the English model.
The language of instruction is Arabic; however, Kurdish is taught in some
schools in northern Iraq. The curriculum in primary school and superstructure is
centrally determined and therefore the same throughout the country. A sharp
increase in participation in education has caused illiteracy to fall
OFFICIAL NAME: Jumhuriyya al-'Iraqiyya
CAPITAL CITY: Baghdad
POPULATION: 36,000,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 438,300 km²
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): Arabic, Kurdish, Persian, Turkish, others
RELIGION: Shia Muslims 60%, Sunni Muslims 35%, Christians and others 5%
CURRENCY CODE: IQD
ENGLISH NAME: Iraq
POPULATION COMPOSITION: Arabs 75%, Kurds 18%, others (Turks, Assyrians, etc.) 7%
GDP PER residents: $ 7100 (2014)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 70 years, women 73 years (2013)
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.642
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 120
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .iq
Iraq, Republic of the Middle East. Much of the country is made up of the flat
plain between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris, ancient Mesopotamia ('the
land between the rivers'), which was the center of some of the most famous
ancient cultures of ancient times, Assyria and Babylon.
Iraq became an independent monarchy in 1932 and a republic in 1958. From 1979
to 2003, the country was ruled dictatorially by a Sunni Muslim Arab minority
around President Saddam Hussein and his family. In the 1970's, some economic and
social growth took place against the background of the country's large oil and
natural gas deposits, but it was interrupted by a grueling war against Iran in
The country's situation deteriorated further in 1990, when Iraq, in an
attempt to gain resources and control over access to the Persian Gulf, annexed
Kuwait. The conquest was met by a massive international response with extensive
bombings, destruction and political and economic isolation as a result. After
September 11, 2001, Iraq was considered a threat by the United States and
accused of producing weapons of mass destruction. Iraq was invaded in 2003 by a
US-led coalition; Saddam Hussein's rule fell after a few weeks, but it has since
proved difficult to establish orderly conditions, and the country was plagued by
daily terrorist attacks and bloody sectarian clashes. However, an Iraqi
government was deployed in 2006, and from 2008 many countries in the coalition
that invaded the country initiated a withdrawal of their troops. The last U.S.
troops left the country in late 2011. However, unrest continued. The
Shia-dominated regime became increasingly authoritarian, and the dissatisfaction
of the Sunni Muslim majority allowed radical Islamists to take over large parts
of the northern part of the country in 2014.
Iraq - economy
After the Ba'ath party took power in 1968, Iraq gained strong central control
over all economic activity. The war against Iran 1980-88 meant that the military
industry grew at the expense of other sectors, and the government had to, among
other things. introduce food rationing and a general import ban on luxury goods
in order to maintain the comprehensive public welfare system.
In order to make the supply channels more efficient, a gradual liberalization
and privatization of the economy was launched in 1987, and the agricultural
sector was given higher priority - both without much success.
UN sanctions against Iraq following the country's invasion of Kuwait in 1990
led to economic isolation, which hit the population hard in the form of
persistent shortages of basic goods. The rationing of basic commodities such as
flour, rice and electricity was tightened, hyperinflation eroded the value of
the dinar, black market trading rose sharply and the state of health
It is estimated that the standard of living, measured by GDP per capita. per
capita, in the early 1990's had dropped to a level as in the 1940's. In 1996, the
UN launched the so-called "oil for food program", which allowed some oil exports
to cover imports of necessary food, medicine, etc.; it expanded in 1999,
mitigating the worst of the crisis.
Iraq's oil reserves are considered to be the world's second largest (after
Saudi Arabia), and oil has long been completely dominant in exports; the
combination of falling oil prices and volumes and rising import needs
dramatically reduced the balance of payments during the war against Iran. In
1990, the external debt amounted to approximately 2/3 of GDP.
Immediately after the fall of the Baath regime in 2003, the Paris Club (of 19
rich credit countries) granted a generous debt restructuring, and the same year
a donors' conference in Madrid pledged $ 32 billion. dollars in reconstruction
aid, to be coordinated by the UN and the World Bank. The embargo was lifted
except for arms sales to Iraq, and in 2004 a new currency was introduced.
However, economic life was severely disrupted by acts of terrorism and
sabotage. limits oil production. Unemployment is estimated at 25-30% (CIA,
2005), poverty remains widespread, and food and energy subsidies are a major
item in the state budget.
Iraq's main trading partners are the United States, Syria and
Turkey. Denmark's exports to Iraq in 2005 amounted to DKK 224 million. DKK, and
imports were 3 mill. kr.
Iraq - social conditions
Throughout the 1990's, the population suffered greatly under the sanctions
that the UN maintained against the country. It is estimated that the fall in GDP
of approximately 10% per annum, which took place in the first part of the 1990's,
continued. A general social safety net does not exist, and the responsibility
for the weakest lies first and foremost with the family.
Iraq (Health Conditions)
Until the outbreak of the Gulf War, Iraq had had a decline in mortality per
capita. 1000 residents from 23 to 8 (1950-91), probably due to an improved
standard of living. Birth rates fell during the same period only from 49 to 45
per. 1000 residents; it resulted in an annual population growth of
3.7%. Maternal mortality in 1990 was 310 per. 100,000 births, while infant
mortality was 48 per. 1000 newborns. High prevalence of measles, polio and
diphtheria indicates inadequate childhood vaccination. The sanctions after the
Gulf War in 1991 have undoubtedly had a very negative impact on the health of
Tuberculosis occurred in 4% of the population in 1987. More than 6000 cases
of malaria are reported annually, and cases of bilharziasis and leishmaniasis
are seen. Until 1995, 34 AIDS cases were reported to the WHO. However, the
actual number must be assumed to be significantly higher.
The Armed Forces and the Security Forces are (2006) under reconstruction
following the Coalition's invasion in 2003. Until this year, the army has a
trained staff of 79,000, the navy 700, the air force 200, the
armed police 67,000 and the central security forces 32,900. The forces are
predominantly equipped with donated newer Soviet and older Western.
Iraq - mass media
Before the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime in 2003, the Iraqi mass media was
largely all state - owned and under absolute state control. They were
distributed throughout Iraq. The largest newspaper was the Ba'ath Party's
Al-Thawra ('The Revolution'), which was founded in 1968 and had a circulation of
approximately 250,000 (1995).
The regime's nationwide Baghdad Radio was established in 1936; from 1970 it
was supplemented by iddad Sawt al-Jamahir ('Voice of the Masses'). Television
was founded in 1956.
After the fall of the government in 2003, the publication of a large number
of new newspapers began, most of which are mouthpieces for political or
religious organizations. However, some of these newspapers were short-lived. The
largest newspaper in terms of circulation is the government-friendly As-Sabah,
which is published in Arabic and English. A satellite-transmitted television
channel, Ash-Sharqiya, broadcasts 24 hours a day, news.
Iraq - architecture and art
The pre-Islamic period is treated under Assyria, Babylon and Mesopotamia as
well as Akkadians and Sumerians. Islamic architecture flourished under the
Abbasid caliphs from 750. Our first capital, Baghdad, we know only through
written traditions as a circular city. On the other hand, large parts of an
impressive desert palace from the 700's, Ukhaidir, approximately 200 km SW of
Baghdad; protected by strong fortress walls, it lies like a regular system of
low-rise buildings around larger and smaller courtyards. From the temporary
residence city of Samarra, there are remains of several extensive palace
facilities. Most famous, however, is the detached spiral-wound minaret of the
Great Mosque from 847; the mosque, now partially ruined, is one of the largest
in the world. In Baghdad, several significant buildings were erected,
including numerous mattresses such as the so-called Abbaside Palace from 1230
and Mustansiriya from 1233; both are two-storey courtyards with arcades and
richly decorated with geometric ornaments in brick mosaic. From the time after
the Abbasids, the distinguished caravanserai of Khan al-Mirjan in Baghdad (1359)
dates back to a vaulted courtyard with refined engineered skylights; here is now
a museum of Islamic art.
In periods after World War II, large oil revenues provided the opportunity
for large-scale urban renewal and new construction, particularly in Baghdad. The
architecture was mainly based on modern western models. Several Danish
architects also participated, including Dissing + Weitling with the National
Bank of Iraq (1985), where all rooms face an inner courtyard in accordance with
Iraq - literature
Baghdad, as the political and cultural capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, was
one of the most important centers of classical Arabic literature. With the rise
of Arab nation-states in the early 1900-t. new literary genres were taken
up. With role models in Egypt and Turkey emerged in the early 1900-t. the first
literary experiments in Iraq in the form of translations from European
Mahmud Ahmad al-Sayyid (1901-37), who portrays social inequalities and
justifies them with apostasy from Islam, is considered a pioneer in prose. As
the first modern Iraqi novel, al-Duktur Ibrahim (1939, Dr. Ibrahim) is
mentioned by Dhu al-Nun Ayyub (1908-88). The theme is the young man who, during
his years of study in Europe, becomes alienated from his own people.
A new generation of Marxist-inspired writers emerged after World War II: Abd
al-Malik al-Nuri (1921-98) and Fuad al-Takarli (1927-2008). Ghaib Farman
(1927-90), who lived for many years in exile in Lebanon and the Soviet Union,
described with realism "the little man", for example in the short story
collection Mawlud akhar (1959, Another Child).
In Abd al-Rahman al-Rubayi (b. 1939), in exile from 1990, it is the
psychological aspects and human inadequacy in the turbulent reality that are
themes in novels and short stories influenced by Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert
Iraqi poets were at the forefront of the development of a new Arabic poetry,
freed from the tradition-bound verse goals and themes. The female lyricists
Nazik al Malaika (1923-2007) and Badr Shakir al-Sayyab (1926-64) published in
1947 experimental poems with irregular lines and without rhyme, but with
rhythm; they were quickly joined by the best lyricists.
Most famous is Abd al-Wahhab al-Bayyati (1926-99), who like Badr Shakir
al-Sayyab was a communist but broke with the party. These poets' strong
commitment to the country's social and national development is replaced by the
youngest poets by a quieter, resigned tone, or, as in the Danish resident Muniam
Alfaker (b. 1953), by the painful experience of exile.
Iraq - music
Iraqi music belongs to the Middle Eastern culture, whose music is modal and
uses micro intervals (see also Arabic music). Music in Iraq is spread over
three main areas: the densely populated eastern part along the Euphrates and
Tigris, the western Bedouin culture and the northern highlands with
predominantly Kurdish population.
Baghdad is an ancient center of Eastern Arabic art music, where instrumental
groups, alkhalgi al-baghdadi, accompany classical songs with santur (board
quotes, also used in Iran), tabla (clay or metal hand drum) and joza (stringed
instrument with coconut).
The songs of the Bedouins are often accompanied by tasfiq (hand
clap) and halahil (high-sounding vocal trills).
The Kurdish music alternates between free-rhythm pieces of an elegiac
character and heroic songs to lively dance rhythms in eg 6/8 and 10/8. Tanbur or saz (long-necked
lye) and zurna (oboskalmeje with double reed) are common in Kurdish
Ud (bandless lye) is widespread throughout the country. Players
Munir Bashir and Naseer Shama are also known outside Iraq with their bid for a
reinterpretation of the tradition.