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Education in Guatemala

 

Guatemala - Education

Education in Guatemala is partly state and partly private; the state is free, but in practice, students often have to bear the cost of school supplies, school uniforms and enrollment fees themselves. The education system includes pre-school for the up to four-year-olds and for the 4-6-year-olds, the six-year compulsory primary school, which is applied for by 93% of a year group and completed by 88% (2011), and a continuing school, which consists of a three-year education, sought by 46%; it is followed by a 2-4-year course, which also includes vocational education, technical subjects, the trade area and teacher education. This is followed by the higher education that takes place at a number of vocational colleges and five universities; the oldest, the Universidad de San Carlos, was founded in 1676.

Education in Guatemala

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OFFICIAL NAME: Guatemala

CAPITAL CITY: Guatemala City (Guatemala City)

POPULATION: 12,300,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)

AREA: 108,889 km²

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): Spanish, quiché, mam and approximately 20 other Mayan languages

RELIGION: Catholics 76%, Protestants 22%, others 2%

COIN: quetzal

CURRENCY CODE: GTQ

ENGLISH NAME: Guatemala

INDEPENDENCE: 1838

POPULATION COMPOSITION: Indians (mostly Mayans) 44%, mestizer 49%, whites (especially of Spanish descent) 5%, others 2%

GDP PER residents: 1734 $ (2007)

LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 64 years, women 71 years (2007)

INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.673

INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 118

INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .gt

POPULATION

Guatemala, Republic of Central America; the most populous and Native American influenced by the Central American states. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the country was the center of the Mayan culture, and the majority of the population are descendants of the Maya Indians.

The difference between the indigenous people and the colonizers, between the traditional and the modern culture and economy has divided society in two and characterizes it with persecution, oppression and bloody conflicts.

Unlike in neighboring countries, Native American culture is still alive; the lack of infrastructure in the highlands has preserved the villages as small, self-sufficient communities linked together by kinships, local customs, dialects and dress.

Guatemala was until 1996 in a state of civil war that for 36 years cost 200,000 lives and forced 1.5 million. on the run.

Guatemala - Constitution

The Constitution of the Republic is from 1986 with amendments from 1993. The legislative power lies with the 80 members of Congress, elected by direct universal suffrage; 64 members are elected in local constituencies, and 16 on a national list. Executive power rests with the President, who, together with a Vice-President, is elected by direct universal suffrage for a term of four years. If no candidate receives 50% of the votes, re-election will be held. The President appoints the Ministers; the Vice President is the President of Congress.

Guatemala - Economy

Unlike many other Latin American countries, Guatemala has rarely been plagued by budget deficits, inflation and currency instability due to tight fiscal and monetary policies.

However, a severe economic crisis occurred in the early 1980's in the wake of the Second Oil Crisis and the escalation of the Civil War. The consequence was production declines, capital flight and major balance of payments problems, which resulted in the abandonment of more than 50 years of fixed exchange rate policy vis - à - vis the country's most important trading partner, the United States.

In the 1990's, the economy had been growing again, which is due to the return of foreign investors after democratic conditions were formally reintroduced in 1985. In 1996, 36 years of bloody conflict between the upper-class government and the poor population of predominantly Mayans ended, but violent atrocities, organized crime and corruption continue to plague everyday life. sharp inequality in land distribution and incomes remains unaffected.

From 2001, the growth in GDP per. per capita been negative. The economy is burdened by debt; both the state budget and the balance of payments show regular deficits.

Denmark's exports to Guatemala in 2005 amounted to DKK 57 million. DKK, while imports from there amounted to 16 mill. kr.

Guatemala - Mass media

Officially there is freedom of the press in Guatemala, but systematic persecution of critical media and journalists has limited the media supply and led to extensive self-censorship. There are thus only nine dailies with a total circulation of approximately 260,000. The two dominant ones are the conservative Prensa Libre (grdl. 1951) with a circulation of 116,000 and El Gráfico (grdl. 1963) with a circulation of 60,000. From the mid-1990's, however, they have been pressured by a few independent and critical daily and weekly newspapers, which have often been abused.

Radio is the country's most important mass media with 625,000 receivers and 95 stations, of which 84 are commercial. Several provincial stations broadcast in one or more of the Native American languages. Television, like the daily press, is primarily aimed at the urban population; there is one state and four commercial stations.

 
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