Education in Georgia is public and free, and there is compulsory schooling
from the 6th to the 15th year. The primary school includes a six-year primary
school for 6-11-year-olds and a three-year primary school for 12-14-year-olds. A
non-compulsory youth education for 15-18-year-olds is divided into a general, a
technical and a vocational line. More than 85% of young people attend courses,
including just 2/3 of the general line and barely 1/3 on
the technical line (1996).
The higher education programs, which require 11 years of schooling, were
distributed in the 1990's at state universities and new private educational
institutions. The state institutions are free and have centrally managed
teaching content. The private payment institutions train for the banking system
and for international trade and management.
Since 1992, private schools have been established at primary school level,
which have more resources than the public ones, which are characterized by
scarcity in terms of buildings, heating, teacher qualifications and
materials. Many teaching materials are still the centrally made ones, and they
are not updated after the Soviet era.
OFFICIAL NAME: Sakartvelos Republika
CAPITAL CITY: Tbilisi
POPULATION: 4,660,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 69,700 km²
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): Georgian, Armenian, Russian, Azerbaijani, others
RELIGION: Georgian Orthodox 65%, Muslims 11%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Armenian Christians
8%, others 6%
CURRENCY CODE: GEK
ENGLISH NAME: Georgia
POPULATION COMPOSITION: Georgians 84%, Armenians 6%, Russians 1.5%, Azeris 6.5%, others 2%
GDP PER residents: $ 971 (2007)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 67 years, women 75 years (2007)
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.743
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 97
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .ge
Georgia, republic east of the Black Sea located in the central and western
parts of the Transcaucasia. Georgia formally belongs to three autonomous
territories, Adjara, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, but the latter two have
Georgia is an ancient cultural area with at least 5000 years of agricultural
history. It was in the early 1800's. engulfed by Russia, joined the Soviet Union
and regained independence with the abolition of the USSR in 1991. Ancient Greeks
called the country Iberia; the Georgians call themselves kartvel after
the ancestor Kartlos. The Caucasus is most often regarded as Europe's southern
border, and Georgia is thus located in Asia, but political and economic
relations with Europe have become closer since 1991 and are a high priority in
the new state.
Georgia - Constitution
The Constitution of the Republic of Georgia is from August 1995. Legislative
power lies with a parliament with 235 members, elected for four years in
general, direct elections: 150 deputies are elected by proportional
representation, 85 by majority in single-member constituencies. The executive
power lies with the president, who is elected for five years with the option of
one re-election in general direct elections; he composes the government, which
must have the confidence of parliament. Legislative initiatives can be taken by
the president, deputies, parliamentary committees or 30,000 eligible
voters. Parliament can pass a law even if the president denies his signature.
Following the resignation of Eduard Sjevardnadze, the Constitution was
amended in early 2004 to introduce a post of Prime Minister. This is appointed
by the President after consultations with the group chairmen of the Parliament,
and the Prime Minister appoints the Ministers with the consent of the President,
the President himself appointing the Ministers of Defense and Home Affairs. With
these changes, the president has strengthened his power. According to another
constitutional amendment of February 2005, the number of members of parliament
will be reduced to 150, of which 50 will be elected in single-member
Georgia - Mass media
In Soviet times there were only a few mass media, all of which were official,
but under glasnost the number of print media increased to 149 (1989). Under
the rule of President Zviad Gamsakhurdia, the media became nationalist and
one-sided, but freedom of the press was restored under Eduard Shevardnadze and
secured in the 1995 constitution.
Press people, however, have protested against abuse and financial
coercion. State radio and television have two channels each, and Russian radio
and television and the Voice of America's Georgian program are also
broadcast; there are also local and private TV stations.
Georgia - Literature
Millennials' oral traditions of fairy tales, legends and heroic songs are the
basis of the nation's poetic wealth, including the numerous variants of the
Georgian Prometheus myth Amiraniani. The oldest known book is Jakov
Tsurtsavelis Skt. Sjusjaniks Martyrium from 400-t.
Until the end of 1000-t. Byzantine Christian literature was predominant, but
under the influence of Persia in particular, a richly varied secular literature
gradually emerged. approximately in the year 1200, Sjota Rustaveli created her
great verse novel The Knight in the Tiger Skin, which anticipates the
humanistic ideals of the Renaissance.
This high culture was interrupted by the invasions of the Mongols, Persians
and Turks. In the 1600's. the literature flourished again, for example with the Wisdom of
the Lie by Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani (1658-1725). David Guramishvili (1705-92)
contributed to the growing patriotism with the poem The Disasters of Georgia. Another
poetic climax was reached by Sayat-Nova (1712-95), who wrote poetry in Georgian,
Armenian and Azerbaijani.
The incorporation into Russia was crucial for the further development, first
of the Georgian Romanticism, whose main characters are Aleksandre Tjavtjavadze
(1786-1846), Grigol Orbeliani (1804-1883) and Nikolos Baratashvili (1817-45),
then of the realistic prose in second half of the century.
Among the pioneers here was the founder of the Georgian theater, Georgi
Eristavi (1811-64). Ilja Tjavtjavadze (1837-1907) asserted herself as a poet,
novelist, translator, radical publicist and banker and had a decisive influence
on Georgian literature and standard Georgian language. All his writing he spent
on strengthening the idea of Georgian independence and in 1907 he was
assassinated by his ideological opponents. In 1987, he was canonized by the
Georgian Church as Ilja the Righteous.
Akaki Tsereteli's (1840-1915) historical novels and poetry contributed to the
belief in Georgia's independent future and the resulting optimistic mood. The
poetic heritage was continued in Vasja-Psjavelas (1861-1915) popular
hometown and nature poetry. Alexandre Kazbegi (1848-1893) portrayed human
emotions and destinies against the background of the strife surrounding
Georgia's freedom. His accounts form an important part of 1800's literature.
Likewise, Davit Kldiasjvilis (1862-1931) and Niko Lortkipanidze's (1880-1944)
prose belong to the classical Georgian literary heritage. For two centuries,
Georgian and Russian masterpieces were mediated by the leading poets and
philologists of the two countries.
With the establishment of the Soviet regime in 1921, conditions changed
drastically. Some writers and poets, such as Galaktion Tabidze (1892-1959),
Giorgi Leonidze (1900-66) and Konstantine Gamsaxurdia (1891-1975), survived the
Soviet era both physically and with their ideologies intact, but many others
occasionally took the lead in the Soviet-friendly flew by conducting propaganda
for the "right" ideology through their literary works.
"Deviating" poets, including from the symbolist group The Blue Drinking Horn,
were persecuted. Executed were Mikheil Djavakhishvili (1880-1937), who had
written a number of highly psychological novels and stories, and Boris
Pasternak's close friend Titsian Tabidze (1895-1937). In response to this, the
poet Paolo Iasjvili (1895-1937) committed suicide in the House of the Writers'
Association. Many writers emigrated, Grigol Robakidze (1882-1962).
The decades after the thaw in the 1950's were marked by freer
experiments. Nodar Dumbadze (1928-84) is typical of the time with his lyrical
prose and existential issues, but also Otar Tjiladze (1933-2009), Tjabua
Amiredzjibi (1921-2013) and Goderdzi Tjokheli (1954-2007) are important names in
recent Georgian literature..
Within poetry, Ana Kalandadze (1924-2008), Mukhran Matjavariani (1929-2010),
Besik Kharanauli (b. 1939) and Lia Sturua (b. 1939) in particular are among the
best with their original poetry. The glass cheese of the 1980's triggered an
environmentally conscious and neo-national wave. Old resentment against the
Russian "brother people" broke out. The era in which Soviet writers met in the
coveted refuges on the Black Sea coast and in the Caucasus Mountains was over.
Freedom of form and style is characteristic of post-Soviet geological
literature. Among the younger writers, Aka Mortjiladze (b. 1966) and Beso
Khvedelidze (b. 1972) are very popular.