Europe of cities
The majority of Europe's population lives in cities, albeit with large
differences between countries; in Belgium over 95%, in the Netherlands 90%, in
Denmark, Sweden and Germany approximately 85% and in Portugal and Albania 35%.
The predominant part of the states' production and consumption is linked to a
small part of the area. Here the urban industries are concentrated, and here the
vast majority spend almost all their time. Urban growth caused housing to
disappear from the city center, while more suburbs and garden and sleeping towns
emerged; a development that gained momentum in the 1950's and which continued in
the following decades. New areas were built on, and many had a long journey
between residence and work. The major European cities are all characterized by
colossal road and rail facilities to cope with this task.
Introduces Europe as a continent, includes a full list of countries in Europe,
and provides location map of Europe.
Especially from the 1980's, many central urban areas again got housing
construction. The urban living areas have widely differing ages, standards and
populations. Old and poorly maintained multi-storey buildings turn into slums
and sometimes into ghettos. Depending on the standard, price, location and
infrastructure, surrounding towns and suburbs can vary from affluent
neighborhoods to suburban ghettos with major social problems.
European nation states mean less and less due to the interplay between
business development, urbanization and internationalization. Competition on
wages is moving jobs to the east and south of Europe and away from here.
Migration from country to city, from south to north and now from east to west
affects the composition of the population. Every nook and cranny in Europe is
experiencing changes in currency, lending and sales conditions in major European
or overseas countries. Urban regions such as Paris, Frankfurt, Milan, Copenhagen
or Moscow are increasingly functioning in relation to Europe and the world
market. The existence of cities rests largely on service, information and
knowledge. These information and service societies are characterized by shifts
of function and power, often rapid shifts, between regions, cities and
catchments. The core area of the EU is shaped like a banana, reaching from the
English metropolitan area over the outskirts of the Netherlands and the Belgian
cities, the German urban belts on the Rhine, Main and Neckar and to northern
Italy. The area has close connections to the east (Berlin) and north, and its
infrastructure and urban connections to the SW along the French-Spanish
Mediterranean coast and SE in Italy are strengthened. Other urban zones develop
at some distance from the "banana": around Paris, in southern Italy and
Spain-Portugal, and in the ěresund region. These patterns reflect both the
changes in the cultural landscapes and the framework that the natural basis
Service professions are becoming increasingly important and employ a growing
proportion of the working population. Large business areas are dominated by
offices, shops and entertainment rather than factories. The factories'
production is handled by fewer and fewer. Abandoned industrial areas are either
scarred in the city or have become residential or institutional areas due to a
sought-after location. In English, Dutch, Nordic and Italian cities are seen as
attractive homes on abandoned factory, warehouse and quay areas by harbor
basins, rivers and canals. The industrial landscape continues to dominate where
location and infrastructure are appropriate. Factories, warehouses, traffic
areas and possibly continue to mine the landscape. Production facilities for
iron and steel, energy and means of transport take up a lot of space, require
transport facilities and characterize the landscape. The same applies to larger
mines and oil fields with shaft and drilling towers, pumps, waste heaps and
follow-on industry. In old industrial regions of Great Britain, Germany, France,
the Benelux and Italy, older and newer industrial districts alternate. Factories
along the Volga and Don, in Donetsk, Minsk and Upper Silesia are examples of
old, often obsolete and highly polluting industries.
Agriculture. The village is the predominant form of settlement in the open
country in large parts of Europe. The appearance and size of the villages vary -
from the three to twenty farms known in Central Europe's cluster and row
villages, to, for example, the villages of southern Italy, which can house
thousands of people. Primary occupations, primarily agriculture, were formerly
the village's business base. The areas around the village were cultivated by its
residents, who could have far to the fields. The heavily divided areas were
later replaced, and the individual farm's fields were collected.
There is a big difference between completely open landscapes with closed
villages and landscapes with a pattern of villages and individual farms. The
estates' large adjoining settlements and settlements for farm workers or small
farmers characterize large areas, which often had homestead colonies added or -
east of the Iron Curtain - collective and state farms. Farms in late cultivated
areas are often scattered or in rows along roads and canals, as in West Jutland
and in Dutch and German polder and raised bog areas. Migration from country to
city led in Northern and Central and later in Southern Europe to the partial
depopulation of villages. Only a vanishing proportion of Europe's workers are
employed on the European "cultural carpet"; often from 2-3% to 6-7%, in Greece
and Russia, however, around 20%.
Forest areas are partly smaller remnants of the natural forests, partly large
areas with forestry or plantations. Europe's highly human areas are changing
with less changing environments; nature parks and other protected areas where
the natural landscape has been preserved or recreated.
Italian imperialism, the interwar period
Following the end of the First World War, Italy's colonial ambitions were
renewed, accelerated in particular by the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and
the rise of Italian fascism. As a result of Turkey's defeat in the war, the
Ottoman Empire was recast and the political geography of the Middle East
re-recorded. This entailed negotiations between the great powers and what became
the last major imperialist distribution of control over foreign territories.
Italy was supported by its old claim to the later Libya, which consisted of
three separate areas: Kyrenaika, Tripolitania and Fezzan. From 1921 a
comprehensive campaign for colonization - la riconquista, the recapture
- was launched. In Kyrenaika, it met military resistance, and the colony was
granted partial autonomy. After the fascist takeover of Libya, the colonization
of Libya became an ideological prestige project, and Benito Mussolini became
personally engaged. A conquest war was waged, which after a decade of resistance
broke the Kyrenian guerrilla. In the late 1930s, colonization was stepped up,
and a program to get farming families to emigrate to Libya implemented. When
Libya was incorporated into Italy as a province in 1939, around 100,000 Italians
lived there. Plans were made for the transfer of half a million during the
1960s. This was compounded by Italy losing Libya as a result of the defeat in
World War II.
Military forces from the Italian colony of Eritrea were used during the
conquest of Libya. Italy had first declared Eritrea as a colony in 1890, and the
colonization was renewed after the Second Italian-Ethiopian War in 1935/1936,
when Eritrea, Ethiopia and Italian Somaliland were merged into an administrative
unit such as Italian East Africa. During World War II, Italian Somaliland and
then Eritrea were first captured by British forces and occupied in 1941, while
Ethiopia regained its independence. After the war, Somaliland became a
supervisory area under Italian control from 1949 until the country gained its
independence in 1960.
World War II, 1940–1945
After the outbreak of World War II on September 1, 1939, Italy declared
itself "non-belligerent", that is, it maintained a formal neutrality while
adopting a distinct German-oriented attitude. In order to remove previous
contradictions, an agreement was concluded, for example, on South Tyrol. The
agreement meant that all inhabitants who wanted to be allowed to move to
On September 27, 1940, the German-Italian Defense Pact was extended to Japan
as well. Encouraged by the victorious German offensive against France, June 10,
1940, Italy declared war on Britain and France. The French main front was near
collapse, which is why the Italian warfare on the alpine front section became
passive and immaterial. On June 24, a ceasefire was concluded between Italy and
The summer of 1940 went without significant war events for Italy. From the
autumn of that year, the country tried to launch an attack on Egypt and Greece.
On October 28, Italian troops without a declaration of war moved into northern
Greece. In Egypt, Italy succeeded in conquering Sidi al-Barrani, but Italy's
offensive warfare was soon met with a British counter-offensive, which soon
brought the war to Italian soil in Libya. The attack against Greece was
similarly met with a powerful Greek counter-offensive, and the Italians were
driven back to Albania.
On April 6, 1941, the Germans helped the Italians attack Greece. The Germans
soon defeated the Greeks' resistance. Also in Africa, the Italian front was
restored by German aid. The initiative was everywhere with the Germans, and
Italy became more and more a German vassal state. In North Africa, Italian
forces suffered defeat. After protracted fighting, Tunis fell, and on August 28,
1943, the invasion of the Italian mainland began.
The defeat of the fronts, the rising air strikes and the rising state of
emergency in the country had led to an internal crisis, and on July 25, 1943,
Mussolini was forced to step down. After a few weeks in captivity, he was
liberated by German paratroopers. He created a neo-fascist Republican Party and
formed a puppet government with a seat in the small town of Sal˛ on Lake Garda.
The real government was then taken over by Marshal Pietro Badoglio, who
dissolved the fascist party. He was able to obtain weapons with the Allies and
declared Germany war on October 13, 1943. The Germans continued to hold northern
and central Italy. Only after hard fighting could the Allies move further north,
and on June 5, 1944, the Germans surrendered Rome without resistance.
After Rome fell, King Viktor Emanuel withdrew in favor of Crown Prince
Umberto. Badoglio resigned on June 10 and was replaced by Ivanoe Bonomi. As the
Allies advanced to Italy, they were assisted by the Italian partisans, who in
April 1945 subdued the whole of Northern Italy. Mussolini was captured and
killed by the partisans on April 28. Marshal Rodolfo Graziani's neofascist
troops capitulated unconditionally on April 29 and the German troops on May 2,
1945. Italy declared war on Japan on July 15. Read on in Italy's history from
1945 to 1990.