Bolivia - education
Bolivia's public school has since 1968 consisted of an eight-year compulsory
primary school (a five-year primary school and a three-year secondary school) as
well as a four-year secondary school in two stages. Four out of five children of
compulsory school age go to primary school; only every fourth continues in
addition. Students in higher education are significantly recruited from the
private schools, which make up 11-14% of the schools at all levels. After
independence in 1825, the educations came under public control. Simón
Bolívarsgoal was education for all, but it was not until 1872 that basic
education was made compulsory and free by law. However, the law was not put into
practice because there was a lack of schools and teachers. In the 1930's, the
first schools for children of the Native American rural population were
established in the countryside, but despite strong expansion since the 1950's, a
stark disparity between city and country still exists. General literacy has
improved significantly since the 1960's; However, 15% of the male and almost 30%
of the female adult population are still illiterate.
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The eight state universities are located in each of the district capitals,
except Pando. The oldest (grdl. 1624) is in Sucre; the largest, San Andrés
(grdl. 1830), in La Paz, which also houses a private Catholic university of
more recent origin (1966). Bolivia has a few more private universities.
OFFICIAL NAME: Bolivia
CAPITAL CITY: Sucre, La Paz (seat of government)
POPULATION: 8,990,000 (Source: COUNTRYaah)
AREA: 1,080,000 km²
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE (S): spansk, quechua, aymará
RELIGION: Catholics 88%, Protestants 9%, others 3%
CURRENCY CODE: BOB
ENGLISH NAME: Bolivia
POPULATION COMPOSITION: quechua 30%, aymará 25%, mestizer 30%, hvide 15%
GDP PER residents: $ 1061 (2007)
LIFE EXPECTANCY: men 63 years, women 67 years (2007)
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, HDI: 0.692
INDEX OF LIVING CONDITIONS, POSITION: 115
INTERNET DOMAIN NAME: .bo
Bolivia, Republic of South America. The state is named after the great South
American freedom hero Simón Bolívar. Bolivia is a large, sparsely populated
country, one of the poorest and most isolated in Latin America. Bolivia
originally had access to the Pacific Ocean, but wars with neighboring countries
have halved the area since independence in 1825. After World War II, the
country has for long periods been characterized by political unrest and chaotic
Bolivia - religion
Over 90% of the population is Catholic. The Christian mission among the
Indians began as early as the 1500's. The majority of the remaining population
belong to various Protestant denominations, but for example the Baha'is are also
represented. Ancient traditions of the local Native American religions have been
assimilated into the practice of the Catholic Church. In the later decades of
the 1900's, the Catholic Church has also engaged in social issues.
Bolivia - Constitution
The Constitution of the Republic of Bolivia is from 2009. The executive power
lies with the President, who is the Head of State and Government and appoints
the members of the Government. He is responsible for foreign policy, can issue
decrees and take legislative initiatives through special messages to
Congress. The president is elected by direct election every five years; if no
candidate gets an absolute majority, the election of president passes to
The Congress consists of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies. The Senate has
36 members, four from each of the country's nine departments. They are elected
by proportional representation for five-year periods. The Chamber of Deputies
has 130 members, of which 77 are elected in single-member constituencies. The
rest are elected by proportional representation on party lists in the nine
departments. All 130 members are elected for five years.
Bolivia - political parties
From approximately 1880 to 1925 the country was ruled by the Conservatives and the
Liberals alternately; both represented the interests of the mine and
landowners. From approximately From 1930 to 1960, new parties and movements emerged
with roots in the middle classes and the working class, The National
Revolutionary Movement (MNR). After approximately In 1960, the old parties were split,
and new parties emerged, MNR-Histórico, a center/left party whose leader,
Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada, was the country's president in the mid - 1990's. The
right wing is represented by the Nationalist Democratic Action (ADN),
created in 1979 by the former dictator Hugo Bánzer under the motto "peace, order
and work". With Evo Moralesmajor election victory in 2005, his party MAS (The
Movement Towards Socialism) became a significant power factor. MAS is left-wing
with populist features and has not least the Native American population as its
Bolivia - social conditions
The centuries-old contempt and oppression of the white Bolivians by the
Indians did not break the social cohesion of the Highland Indians, and in 1994 a
law was passed for the first time that allowed a form of local self-government
in the Native American communities. Wages are low for most employed Bolivians
and do not go far, just as housing conditions are generally primitive.
Bolivia is one of the few countries in South America that has a professional
national organization (COB). The organization's opposition to the many economic
cuts made since the mid-1980's and to the government's privatization program of
1990 has at times resulted in violent confrontations with the military and
police. In 2003, COB also played an important role in the violent protests that
led to the departure of Sánchez de Losada.
Bolivia's development is slowed down of the corrupting influence of the
drug industry on the judiciary, army and police as well as on the political
parties. There has also been widespread opposition in the COB to the anti-drug
campaign launched in the 1980's with support from the United States. The
intention is a reorganization of the large coca production.
Bolivia - health conditions
Bolivia has a large population growth, but the number of births per. woman
has dropped to below 3. The mortality rate for children in the first year of
life is 52 ‰. Life expectancy is 66 years.
The causes of death are dominated by infectious diseases with almost 35%, of
which pneumonia and diarrheal diseases each make up about
10%. Cancer and cardiovascular disease are less common than in Western
Europe. Protein deficiency in children as well as iron and iodine deficiency at
all ages are frequent, but vary geographically and affect 40-60% of the
population in many places. Tropical diseases, Chagas'
disease, malaria and yellow fever, is widespread in parts of the country.
The health care system is divided into a state sector, an insurance system
for employees and a private sector. Expenditure on health care accounts for 4.5%
of the country's GDP; of which 35% is public expenditure. The hospital system
has 2 beds per. 1000 residents, one third of Denmark's capacity. Bolivia has 1
doctor per. 2000 residents The resources are used predominantly in urban
Bolivia - military
The peacekeeping force of the armed forces is (2006) 31,500, of which 20,000
conscripts. The training period is 12 months. The army 25,000, the navy 3500,
the air force 3000. All three defenses have a relatively modern light
armament. They are all primarily equipped to conduct operations in support of
internal security. In addition, 37,100 in paramilitary police units.
Bolivia - architecture and visual arts
Highland Indians founded the Tiahuanaco culture in western Bolivia south
of Lake Titicaca in the 6th century. Through 500 years, the empire spread and
left behind ceramics, metalwork, textiles and a monumental architecture, among
others. Calasasaya Temple. Later, the Incas in the time leading up to the
Spanish conquest left traces in the form of handicrafts and building remains.
The Spanish conquerors brought Renaissance and Baroque architecture to the
country. The architecture was predominantly Jesuit, but executed by original
craftsmen; thus, in the latter half of the 18th century, the "mestizo-baroque"
of the colonial era emerged, characterized by an accumulation of ornaments, the
use of original motifs from the local flora and fauna, and the aymara-Quechua
culture's penchant for repetition. Examples of this style are the Church of San
Francisco in La Paz (1549) as well as the temples and monasteries
of Potosí and Sucre.
The colony's painting is profiled by Pérez de Holguin (1660-1733). In the
1920's, Bolivian artists more obviously began to develop an independent
expression. After the death of the painter Cecilio Guzmán de Rojas in 1950,
Cubist, neo-impressionist, expressionist and surrealist currents emerged. Among
the artists of this century should be highlighted Marina Nuñez del Prado
(1912-1995), Roberto Berdecio (1913-1996), María Eloy Vargas Cárdenas (b. 1928)
and Roberto Arnal (b. 1930).
Bolivia - film
Bolivian film is especially associated with the director Jorge Sanjinés (b.
1936), who with the US-hostile Yawar Mallku (1969, Blood of the
Condor) won sympathy for the cause of the Indians and was internationally
recognized. After a brief period of silent film, initiated in 1913 by Luis G.
Castillo, imports of foreign sound films suffocated virtually all national
production until 1958, when the first Bolivian sound film was released. In 1965,
the military government handed over the management of the Bolivian Film
Institute, ICB, to Jorge Sanjinés; however, it was closed after the broadcast of
Sanjinés' Ukamau(1966), the first Bolivian film with Aymará Native
American speech. The film group Ukamau then stood as the most important
representative of Bolivian art film, but split after the military coup in 1971.
Sanjinés continued his business in exile. From the 1980's, the photographer and
director Antonio Eguino (b. 1938) is behind the biggest audience successes in
the country's film history, Pueblo chico (1974, Small town) and Amargo
mar (1984, Bitter sea).