We are already so accustomed in connect the tv, turn on the lights, load equipment, using the appliances that don’t stop to think in the way or path which the electricity passes, or will pass up to get to our houses.
Seen this show in an objective way, this way.
Produced from an electric potential of two points of a conductor, electrical energy is the main energy source of the planet.
In large part, the electric energy is produced in hydroelectric plants, but their production is also made in plants wind, solar, thermoelectrics, nuclear, etc.
In Brazil, almost 90% of the energy is produced in Hydroelectric power Plants being the largest Hydroelectric power Plant in Brazil is the Itaipu dam, located on the Paraná River on the border between Brazil and Paraguay.
In Hydroelectric Plants, the force of the waters, of the rivers, to generate mechanical energy, which in turn reaches for the population in the form of electric power, so essential in the present day: computers, batteries, appliances, lighting, televisions, among others
In the International System (SI), the electric energy is represented in joule (J), however, the unit of measure most commonly used is the kilowatt-hour (kWh), as can be seen in the measurement of the consumption of electric energy made by the energy companies
Some questions that usually appear when the subject is electrical power:
Why did the blackouts happen?
José Aquiles Baesso, from the Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo (Poli-USP), says that “In Brazil, the largest part of the energy is produced far from major consumption centers. Every time that they travel long distances, the chances of happen unforeseen increase”
The blackouts represent, therefore, the weakness in the system of transmission of electrical networks and can be caused by faults in the equipment protection of the transmission cables, or even a possible peak consumption.
The quality of the energy generated changes according to the regions of Brazil?
Augustine Pascalicchio, professor of electrical engineering at Mackenzie Presbyterian University, explains that “we Lost 17% of everything we produce. This is the equivalent of a hydroelectric power plant of Itaipu, and has a very huge cost to society because it creates the need to generate more energy than is necessary”.
The amount of the resource that is dissipated in the path made by the energy directly affects the quality of the supplied electricity in some regions.
That is, a utility that wishes to remain in the market must fulfill a number of requirements of the National Electric Energy Agency (Aneel), which determines the quality of energy.For a utility to increase the tariff and make more of a profit, she needs to submit reports attesting to improvements in the indicators of supply.
“There is an effort to improve the service provided. But the companies of the South and Southeast regions have the best indicators. And this impacts on the quality of the supply,” says Aquiles Baesso, of the Poly.
How to make the path of energy safer and more efficient?
Even with solutions large to the national network, the specialists consider that the energy safer and more efficient, is the one produced the closest possible to the point of consumption.
With this, the losses in the middle of the path end and the energy can still be produced in voltage consumption, which facilitates the distribution.
As the electrical energy is transmitted?
The electricity is conducted up to a residence by means of a system. The process is all branched: it starts in the power generation, through transmission equipment and distribution cables up to the posts and to the outlets of the homes or businesses.
See below each element that compose an electrical network. An interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers.
It is an industrial set that transforms a potential energy to electrical energy. In Brazil, the use, primarily, of the energy generated by the fall of water trapped in the plants and to transform it into electricity.
The fall d’ water moves the generator, which creates a magnetic field and electric energy. Then, it is conducted to the transmission system.
Are the high tension cables supported by towers, that carry electricity for long distances.
The tension has its high value, further reducing the energy loss.
It is an electrical installation that has transformers that increase the voltage of the energy generated. The voltage is changed to prevent excessive loss of energy along its transmission. Already that part of the electricity is lost, being transformed into heat. This is called Joule effect.
Receive and distribute electricity.
In this step, the power passes through the voltage transformers. By decreasing your value for following the route by the distribution network, reaching to the wiring of the posts.
Wiring of poles
The energy comes to the distribution transformers to lower the voltage once more. Then passes through the wiring (aerial or underground), being led in industries or homes.
The final consumer
The final destination of the electric power are the residences and industries. The private companies are responsible for the distribution of energy in good part of the country, being regulated by ANEEL.
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